Effects of child care policy and environment on physical activity.
ABSTRACT Child care centers differ systematically with respect to the quality and quantity of physical activity they provide, suggesting that center-level policies and practices, as well as the center's physical environment, are important influences on children's physical activity behavior.
To summarize and critically evaluate the extant peer-reviewed literature on the influence of child care policy and environment on physical activity in preschool-aged children.
A computer database search identified seven relevant studies that were categorized into three broad areas: cross-sectional studies investigating the impact of selected center-level policies and practices on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), studies correlating specific attributes of the outdoor play environment with the level and intensity of MVPA, and studies in which a specific center-level policy or environmental attribute was experimentally manipulated and evaluated for changes in MVPA.
Staff education and training, as well as staff behavior on the playground, seem to be salient influences on MVPA in preschoolers. Lower playground density (less children per square meter) and the presence of vegetation and open play areas also seem to be positive influences on MVPA. However, not all studies found these attributes to be significant. The availability and quality of portable play equipment, not the amount or type of fixed play equipment, significantly influenced MVPA levels.
Emerging evidence suggests that several policy and environmental factors contribute to the marked between-center variability in physical activity and sedentary behavior. Intervention studies targeting these factors are thus warranted.
- SourceAvailable from: Ellen Beate Hansen SandseterEuropean Early Childhood Education Research Journal 12/2010; 8(4-4):437 - 443. DOI:10.1080/1350293X.2010.525917 · 0.46 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we investigate some of the factors that may limit opportunities of children in Australia to engage in outdoor physical play. We examine the paradox that ‘surplus safety’ (i.e. excessive attempts at creating safe environments for children) in child care, school and urban environments, may expose children to significant chronic health risks. In making this case, we examine findings on physical activity levels in child care and restrictive regulatory environments. We also examine restrictions in school playgrounds that result, at least partly, from fears of litigation. Finally, we discuss the results of a pilot project in which loose parts were introduced into a school playground resulting in increased physical activity levels.01/2010; AARE.
Conference Paper: An intercomparison of two acoustic doppler current profilers[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An AMETEK Straza DCP4400 Doppler current profiler and an RD Instruments RD-SC1200 Doppler current profiler were operated simultaneously for a period of 5 days in the Port of Miami in bottom-mounted upward looking configurations. An EG&G-VMCM mooring was deployed between the two Doppler systems for the same period, and drifter experiments were also conducted during the week for surface measurement intercomparison. Experimental acoustic beam side lobe deflectors were used for a period of time on the AMETEK system to explore their effects on surface layer measurements. The system operating characteristics are discussed, and the data retrieved from the systems are presented. Analysis and interpretation of the intercomparison of all measurements, a discussion of surface measurement capabilities and deflector results, as well as system performance analysis are also presented.OCEANS '85 - Ocean Engineering and the Environment; 12/1985