Lun, X, Alain, T, Zemp, FJ, Zhou, H, Rahman, MM, Hamilton, MG et al.. Myxoma virus virotherapy for glioma in immunocompetent animal models: optimizing administration routes and synergy with rapamycin. Cancer Res 70: 598-608
Oncolytic myxoma virus (MYXV) is being developed as a novel virotherapeutic against human brain cancer and has promising activity against human brain tumor models in immunocompromised hosts. Because an intact immune system could reduce its efficacy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncolytic potential of MYXV in immunocompetent racine glioma models. Here, we report that MYXV infects and kills all racine cell glioma lines and that its effects are enhanced by rapamycin. Intratumoral administration of MYXV with rapamycin improved viral replication in the tumor and significantly prolonged host survival. Similarly, coadministration via a method of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) enhanced viral replication and efficacy in vivo. Mechanisms by which rapamycin improved MYXV oncolysis included an inhibition of type I IFN production in vitro and a reduction of intratumoral infiltration of CD68(+) microglia/macrophages and CD163(+) macrophages in vivo. Our findings define a method to improve MYXV efficacy against gliomas by rapamycin coadministration, which acts to promote immune responses engaged by viral delivery.
"Preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that OVs often infect neoplastic lesions in a heterogeneous and incomplete fashion, irrespective of administration route and whether viruses are replication-competent or not (91–93). Physicochemical barriers to infection, including tumor size (94), the layers of dense intratumoral connective tissue (95), the elevated interstitial pressure (96), the poorly permissive vasculature (97), and the large areas of necrosis/calcification (98) play a prominent role in determining viral dissemination. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer is a traitorous archenemy that threatens our survival. Its ability to evade detection and adapt to various cancer therapies means that it is a moving target that becomes increasingly difficult to attack. Through technological advancements, we have developed sophisticated weapons to fight off tumor growth and invasion. However, if we are to stand a chance in this war against cancer, advanced tactics will be required to maximize the use of our available resources. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are multi-functional cancer-fighters that can be engineered to suit many different strategies; in particular, their retooling can facilitate increased capacity for direct tumor killing (oncolytic virotherapy) and elicit adaptive antitumor immune responses (oncolytic immunotherapy). However, administration of these modified OVs alone, rarely induces successful regression of established tumors. This may be attributed to host antiviral immunity that acts to eliminate viral particles, as well as the capacity for tumors to adapt to therapeutic selective pressure. It has been shown that various chemotherapeutic drugs with distinct functional properties can potentiate the antitumor efficacy of OVs. In this review, we summarize the chemotherapeutic combinatorial strategies used to optimize virally induced destruction of tumors. With a particular focus on pharmaceutical immunomodulators, we discuss how specific therapeutic contexts may alter the effects of these synergistic combinations and their implications for future clinical use.
Frontiers in Oncology 06/2014; 4:145. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00145
"Additionally, Rap is an immunosuppressant that modifies host innate or adaptive cellular immunity, further facilitating MYXV infection . Combined MYXV + Rap therapy has successfully treated glioma, medulloblastoma, and other tumors [9,10]. Whether combined therapy can target GBC, however, remains unknown. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is highly lethal, and effective treatment will require synergistic anti-tumor management. The study is aimed at investigating the oncolytic value of myxoma virus (MYXV) infection against GBC and optimizing MYXV oncolytic efficiency.
We examined the permissiveness of GBC cell lines to MYXV infection and compared the effects of MYXV on cell viability among GBC and control permissive glioma cells in vitro and in vivo after MYXV + rapamycin (Rap) treatment, which is known to enhance cell permissiveness to MYXV by upregulating p-Akt levels. We also assessed MYXV + hyaluronan (HA) therapy efficiency by examinating Akt activation status, MMP-9 expression, cell viability, and collagen distribution. We further compared hydraulic conductivity, tumor area, and survival of tumor-bearing mice between the MYXV + Rap and MYXV + HA therapeutic regimens.
MYXV + Rap treatment could considerably increase the oncolytic ability of MYXV against GBC cell lines in vitro but not against GBC xenografts in vivo. We found higher levels of collagen IV in GBC tumors than in glioma tumors. Diffusion analysis demonstrated that collagen IV could physically hinder MYXV intratumoral distribution. HA-CD44 interplay was found to activate the Akt signaling pathway, which increases oncolytic rates. HA was also found to enhance the MMP-9 secretion, which contributes to collagen IV degradation.
Unlike MYXV + Rap, MYXV + HA therapy significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effects of MYXV in vivo and prolonged survival of GBC tumor-bearing mice. HA may optimize the oncolytic effects of MYXV on GBC via the HA-CD44 interaction which can promote viral infection and diffusion.
Molecular Cancer 04/2014; 13(1):82. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-82 · 4.26 Impact Factor
"For some viruses, such as myxoma virus (MYXV), increased activation of Akt improves replication and oncolytic activity in several mouse, rat, and human tumour models –. While systemic immunosuppressive effects of rapamycin or rapalogues also likely play a key role, such drugs have nevertheless been successfully used with several OVs, including adenovirus, HSV, VSV, MYXV, and VV, to improve their control of tumour progression ,,–. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour mutations corrupt cellular pathways, and accumulate to disrupt, dysregulate, and ultimately avoid mechanisms of cellular control. Yet the very changes that tumour cells undergo to secure their own growth success also render them susceptible to viral infection. Enhanced availability of surface receptors, disruption of antiviral sensing, elevated metabolic activity, disengagement of cell cycle controls, hyperactivation of mitogenic pathways, and apoptotic avoidance all render the malignant cell environment highly supportive to viral replication. The therapeutic use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) with a natural tropism for infecting and subsequently lysing tumour cells is a rapidly progressing area of cancer research. While many OVs exhibit an inherent degree of tropism for transformed cells, this can be further promoted through pharmacological interventions and/or the introduction of viral mutations that generate recombinant oncolytic viruses adapted to successfully replicate only in a malignant cellular environment. Such adaptations that augment OV tumour selectivity are already improving the therapeutic outlook for cancer, and there remains tremendous untapped potential for further innovation.
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