HER2-specific T cells target primary glioblastoma stem cells and induce regression of autologous experimental tumors.
ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive human primary brain tumor and is currently incurable. Immunotherapies have the potential to target GBM stem cells, which are resistant to conventional therapies. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a validated immunotherapy target, and we determined if HER2-specific T cells can be generated from GBM patients that will target autologous HER2-positive GBMs and their CD133-positive stem cell compartment.
HER2-specific T cells from 10 consecutive GBM patients were generated by transduction with a retroviral vector encoding a HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor. The effector function of HER2-specific T cells against autologous GBM cells, including CD133-positive stem cells, was evaluated in vitro and in an orthotopic murine xenograft model.
Stimulation of HER2-specific T cells with HER2-positive autologous GBM cells resulted in T-cell proliferation and secretion of IFN-gamma and interleukin-2 in a HER2-dependent manner. Patients' HER2-specific T cells killed CD133-positive and CD133-negative cells derived from primary HER2-positive GBMs, whereas HER2-negative tumor cells were not killed. Injection of HER2-specific T cells induced sustained regression of autologous GBM xenografts established in the brain of severe combined immunodeficient mice.
Gene transfer allows the reliable generation of HER2-specific T cells from GBM patients, which have potent antitumor activity against autologous HER2-positive tumors including their putative stem cells. Hence, the adoptive transfer of HER2-redirected T cells may be a promising immunotherapeutic approach for GBM.
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ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to highly incurable malignant gliomas due to tumor-specific cytotoxicity, minimal side effect, and a durable antitumor effect by memory T cells. But, antitumor activities of endogenously activated T cells induced by immunotherapy such as vaccination are not sufficient to control tumors because tumor-specific antigens may be self-antigens and tumors have immune evasion mechanisms to avoid immune surveillance system of host. Although recent clinical results from vaccine strategy for malignant gliomas are encouraging, these trials have some limitations, particularly their failure to expand tumor antigen-specific T cells reproducibly and effectively. An alternative strategy to overcome these limitations is adoptive T cell transfer therapy, in which tumor-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo rapidly and then transferred to patients. Moreover, enhanced biologic functions of T cells generated by genetic engineering and modified immunosuppressive microenvironment of host by homeostatic T cell expansion and/or elimination of immunosuppressive cells and molecules can induce more potent antitumor T cell responses and make this strategy hold promise in promoting a patient response for malignant glioma treatment. Here we will review the past and current progresses and discuss a new hope in adoptive T cell therapy for malignant gliomas.Research Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 2014:326545.
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ABSTRACT: Therapies that target the signal transduction and biological characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs) are innovative strategies that are used in combination with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy to effectively reduce the recurrence and significantly improve the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The two main strategies that are currently being exploited to eradicate CSCs are (a) chemotherapeutic regimens that specifically drive CSCs toward cell death and (b) those that promote the differentiation of CSCs, thereby depleting the tumour reservoir. Extracellular purines, particularly adenosine triphosphate, have been implicated in the regulation of CSC formation, but currently, no data on the role of adenosine and its receptors in the biological processes of CSCs are available. In this study, we investigated the role of adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes in the survival and differentiation of CSCs isolated from human GBM cells. Stimulation of A1AR and A2BAR had a prominent anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic effect on the CSCs. Notably, an A1AR agonist also promoted the differentiation of CSCs toward a glial phenotype. The differential effects of the two AR agonists on the survival and/or differentiation of CSCs may be ascribed to their distinct regulation of the kinetics of ERK/AKT phosphorylation and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors. Most importantly, the AR agonists sensitised CSCs to the genotoxic activity of temozolomide (TMZ) and prolonged its effects, most likely through different mechanisms, are as follows: (i) by A2BAR potentiating the pro-apoptotic effects of TMZ and (ii) by A1AR driving cells toward a differentiated phenotype that is more sensitive to TMZ. Taken together, the results of this study suggested that the purinergic system is a novel target for a stem cell-oriented therapy that could reduce the recurrence of GBM and improve the survival rate of GBM patients.Cell Death & Disease 11/2014; 5:e1539. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T-cell-mediated immune responses are typically low in conditions of malignant glioma which has been known to cause marked immunesuppression and dysregulate major T-cell signaling molecules. Thus, T-cell-based immunotherapies are currently in vogue in the treatment of malignant glioma. The novel glycopeptide, T11TS/S-LFA-3/S-CD58 has previously been shown by our group to be highly efficacious in glioma abrogation in in vivo and in vitro conditions. This glycopeptide ligands to the costimulatory CD2 molecule on T-cells, causing profound immune stimulation leading to glioma abrogation, suggesting probable involvement of T11TS in modulation of the T-cell signaling pathway. The present study offers a multi-targeted approach towards repair of some of the key components of the immunological synapse at the T-cell-APC interface and is therefore the first of its kind to offer a holistic model of restoration of immunological synapse components so as to trigger T-cells towards activation against glioma. The study thus indicates that the totally dysregulated molecular events at the immunological synapse in glioma are restored back to normal levels with the administration of T11TS, which finally culminates in glioma abrogation. The present study thus delineates an important T-cell signaling approach whereby T11TS acts as an anti-neoplastic agent, thus helping to chart out newer avenues in the fight against gliomas.Journal of Neuro-Oncology 07/2014; 120(1). · 3.12 Impact Factor