Factors Associated with Workplace Violence in Paramedics
ABSTRACT The majority of research that has explored workplace violence has focused on establishing the prevalence of violence in different settings. In general, there is a paucity of research that explores factors that may predict or increase the risk of experiencing violence in the workplace.
The aim of this research was to determine predictors of violence for paramedics.
A questionnaire was developed that focused on paramedics' experiences with six forms of violence: verbal abuse, property damage/theft, intimidation, physical abuse, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to paramedics throughout rural Victoria and metropolitan South Australia, and completed and returned anonymously.
Predictors emerged for verbal abuse, intimidation, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse. Specifically, gender was the only predictor of intimidation, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Paramedic qualifications, how they responded to a call-out, and hours per week in direct patient contact emerged as a predictor of verbal abuse.
Certain factors predict or predispose paramedics to workplace violence. The need for workplace violence education and training is imperative for the prevention of violence, as well as for its management.
SourceAvailable from: Mónica Bernaldo-de-Quirós[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo conocer la frecuencia y naturaleza de las agresiones que sufren los profesionales asistenciales de los servicios de urgencia y emergencia del SUMMA-112 por parte de pacientes y/o familiares/acompañantes y las variables implicadas con el fin de establecer las necesidades más importantes para poder aportar soluciones y recursos al respecto. Se realizó un muestreo aleatorio estratificado de los distintos servicios de urgencias (n=32) y emergencias (n=38) localizados en las distintas áreas geográficas de la Comunidad de Madrid evaluando a los profesionales pertenecientes a los distintos estamentos (135 médicos, 127 enfermeras y 179 técnicos en emergencias médicas). De acuerdo a los resultados se ofrecen propuestas de actuación en distintas líneas que ayuden a prevenir las agresiones.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient and visitor violence (PVV) is the most dangerous occupational hazard that health professionals must contend with. Staff training is recommended to prevent and manage PVV. There is minimal research focusing on risk factors associated with PVV in general hospital settings. Therefore, staff training is mostly based upon expert knowledge and knowledge from psychiatric and emergency settings. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates health professionals' experiences with PVV in order to describe risk factors related to PVV that occur in general hospital settings. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007. SETTING: A university general hospital in Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: 2495 out of 4845 health professionals participated (58.0% nurses & midwives, 19.2% medical doctors, 3.6% physical therapists, occupational therapists & nutritionists, 6.1% ward secretaries, medical & radiology assistants, 6.3% nursing assistants or less qualified nursing staff and 5.1% other staff). All had direct patient contact and 82% were female. METHODS: Data were collected via questionnaires using the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff German-Version-Revised, the German version of the shortened Perception of Aggression Scale and the Perception of Importance of Intervention Skills Scale. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: Risk factors associated with PVV depend upon the form of violence. Those trained in aggression management and/or those who work predominantly with patients over 65years of age experience twice as much PVV as others. Health professionals working in emergency rooms, outpatient units, intensive care units, recovery rooms, anesthesia, intermediate care and step-down units also experience PVV more often. When health professionals are older in age, are from the medical profession, are students, or when they have an attitude rating preventive measures as being less important and aggression as emotionally letting off steam, they experience less PVV. CONCLUSION: Training could change the perception and the recognition of PVV, and could therefore increase the risk of experiencing PVV. The health professionals' specific occupation along with attitude and age, the patients' age, the communication and the workplace are all relevant risk factors. Further studies should investigate the impact of aggression management training and other measures that would reduce PVV.International journal of nursing studies 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.09.018 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Introduction. Studies from Australia, Sweden, the United States, and elsewhere have found that paramedics experience violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace. The objective of this study was to describe and explore violence experienced by paramedics in the ground ambulance setting, including types of violence experienced, by whom the violence was perpetrated, actions taken by paramedics, and effects of these episodes. Method. A cross-sectional study utilizing a mixed-methods paper survey was provided to a convenience sample of rural, suburban, and urban-based ground ambulance paramedics in two Canadian provinces. Paramedics were asked to describe episodes of verbal assault, intimidation, physical assault, sexual harassment, and sexual assault they were exposed to during the past 12 months. Qualitative questions inquired about the impact of these experiences. Response selections were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis, and qualitative data was analyzed using descriptive content analysis. Results. A total of 1,884 paramedics were invited to participate and 1,676 responded (89.0%). Most participants (75%) reported experiencing violence in the past 12 months. The most common form of violence reported was verbal assault (67%), followed by intimidation (41%), physical assault (26%), sexual harassment (14%), and sexual assault (3%). Patients were identified as the most common perpetrators of violence. Serious sequellae were qualitatively reported. Conclusion. The majority of Canadian paramedics surveyed experience violence in the workplace, which can lead to serious personal and professional sequellae. Strategies should be devised and studied to reduce violent events toward paramedics and to mitigate the impact such events have on the wellbeing of paramedics.Prehospital Emergency Care 05/2014; 18(4). DOI:10.3109/10903127.2014.912703 · 1.81 Impact Factor