Failure to Detect the Novel Retrovirus XMRV in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
ABSTRACT In October 2009 it was reported that 68 of 101 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in the US were infected with a novel gamma retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a virus previously linked to prostate cancer. This finding, if confirmed, would have a profound effect on the understanding and treatment of an incapacitating disease affecting millions worldwide. We have investigated CFS sufferers in the UK to determine if they are carriers of XMRV.
Patients in our CFS cohort had undergone medical screening to exclude detectable organic illness and met the CDC criteria for CFS. DNA extracted from blood samples of 186 CFS patients were screened for XMRV provirus and for the closely related murine leukaemia virus by nested PCR using specific oligonucleotide primers. To control for the integrity of the DNA, the cellular beta-globin gene was amplified. Negative controls (water) and a positive control (XMRV infectious molecular clone DNA) were included. While the beta-globin gene was amplified in all 186 samples, neither XMRV nor MLV sequences were detected.
XMRV or MLV sequences were not amplified from DNA originating from CFS patients in the UK. Although we found no evidence that XMRV is associated with CFS in the UK, this may be a result of population differences between North America and Europe regarding the general prevalence of XMRV infection, and might also explain the fact that two US groups found XMRV in prostate cancer tissue, while two European studies did not.
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ABSTRACT: In der Schweiz gibt es 11 verschiedene, historisch gewachsene Sozialversicherungen, deren grundsätzliche Ausgestaltung im Allgemeinen Teil des Sozialversicherungsgesetzes (ATSG) dargelegt ist. Die soziale Sicherung für behinderte Menschen und solche mit chronischen Erkrankungen wird u. a. von der Invalidenversicherung gewährleistet, die durch das Bundesgesetz über die Invalidenversicherung - aktuell in der 6. Revision - geregelt wird. Da sich die Rechtsprechung bezüglich der Invalidenversicherung in den letzten 10 Jahren erheblich gewandelt hat - was sich insbesondere auf die Leistungszusprache bei psychischen Störungen auswirkt - soll der vorliegende Beitrag einen Überblick über die für den medizinischen Experten relevanten juristischen Aspekte geben. Es ist hervorzuheben, dass die Rechtsprechung Prinzipien zur Einordung von Folgen spezifischer Krankheitsentitäten normativ festgelegt und diese im letzten Jahrzehnt weiterausgebaut hat. Die vom Rechtsanwender vorgenommene Prüfung der „willentlichen Überwindbarkeit“ stellt dabei auf einen Kriterienkatalog ab, der aus medizinischer Sicht nicht ausreichend belegt ist. In der juristischen Literatur der Schweiz wird diese gegenwärtige (Rechts-)Praxis kontrovers diskutiert, und Anpassungen werden erwogen. Abstract There are 11 different historically established social security insurances in Switzerland. Social security for disabled and chronically ill people is mostly covered by the disability insurance. The disability insurance is governed by a federal law which has been revised six times, the last amendments having been introduced in 2012. The disability insurance legislation has changed much in the past 10 years and this has had a particularly great impact on the benefits awarded for psychiatric disorders. This article outlines several important facets of the disability insurance legislation relevant to psychiatric work capacity evaluations. Of particular interest are the special legal rules applied to specific illness groups, which have been expanded during the last decade. The concept of “voluntary surmountability” has arguably had the most impact and is based on a catalogue of criteria with an insufficient scientific foundation. The impact and possible changes of the current jurisdiction is currently being discussed in the Swiss juristic literature and amendments are under consideration.Forensische Psychiatrie Psychologie Kriminologie 05/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11757-014-0302-3
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ABSTRACT: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was discovered in 2006 in a search for a viral etiology of human prostate cancer (PC). Substantial interest in XMRV as a potentially new pathogenic human retrovirus was driven by reports that XMRV could be detected in a significant percentage of PC samples, and also in tissues from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). After considerable controversy, etiologic links between XMRV and these two diseases were disproven. XMRV was determined to have arisen during passage of a human PC tumor in immunocompromised nude mice, by activation and recombination between two endogenous murine leukemia viruses from cells of the mouse. The resulting XMRV had a xentropic host range, which allowed it replicate in the human tumor cells in the xenograft. This review describes the discovery of XMRV, and the molecular and virological events leading to its formation, XMRV infection in animal models and biological effects on infected cells. Lessons from XMRV for other searches of viral etiologies of cancer are discussed, as well as cautions for researchers working on human tumors or cell lines that have been passed through nude mice, includingpotential biohazards associated with XMRV or other similar xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (MLVs).04/2014; 3(4):e. DOI:10.1038/emi.2014.25
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