PURPOSE To compare outcomes between lung stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) and wedge resection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS One hundred twenty-four patients with T1-2N0 NSCLC underwent wedge resection (n = 69) or image-guided lung SBRT (n = 58) from February 2003 through August 2008. All were ineligible for anatomic lobectomy; of those receiving SBRT, 95% were medically inoperable, with 5% refusing surgery. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide were 1.39 L and 12.0 mL/min/mmHg for wedge versus 1.31 L and 10.14 mL/min/mmHg for SBRT (P = not significant). Mean Charlson comorbidity index and median age were 3 and 74 years for wedge versus 4 and 78 years for SBRT (P < .01, P = .04). SBRT was volumetrically prescribed as 48 (T1) or 60 (T2) Gy in four to five fractions. Results Median potential follow-up is 2.5 years. At 30 months, no significant differences were identified in regional recurrence (RR), locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), or freedom from any failure (FFF) between the two groups (P > .16). SBRT reduced the risk of local recurrence (LR), 4% versus 20% for wedge (P = .07). Overall survival (OS) was higher with wedge but cause-specific survival (CSS) was identical. Results excluding synchronous primaries, nonbiopsied tumors, or pathologic T4 disease (wedge satellite lesion) showed reduced LR (5% v 24%, P = .05), RR (0% v 18%, P = .07), and LRR (5% v 29%, P = .03) with SBRT. There were no differences in DM, FFF, or CSS, but OS was higher with wedge. CONCLUSION Both lung SBRT and wedge resection are reasonable treatment options for stage I NSCLC patients ineligible for anatomic lobectomy. SBRT reduced LR, RR, and LRR. In this nonrandomized population of patients selected for surgery versus SBRT (medically inoperable) at physician discretion, OS was higher in surgical patients. SBRT and surgery, however, had identical CSS.
"Timmermann et al. ont observé une rechute ganglionnaire chez deux patients sur 59 qui avaient reç u une radiothérapie stéréotaxique pour un cancer de stade T1/T2 . Dans l'étude de Grills et al., les taux de rechute ganglionnaire et de rechute métastatique étaient de 0 % et de 19 % pour les patients recevant une irradiation stéréotaxique et de 18 % et 21 % pour les patients opérés par wedge (les patients atteints de cancer classé pT4, sans diagnostic histologique et avec un deuxième primitif synchrone , étaient exclus de cette analyse) . De plus, en cas de résection chirurgicale, le curage ganglionnaire n'est pas systématique, par exemple 31 % des patients inclus dans un essai américain comparant une segmentectomie et une résection par wedge n'ont pas bénéficié d'un curage ganglionnaire . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer is now well established for patients who are not eligible to surgery. These patients can benefit from a curative treatment, which is a new therapeutic indication. Protocols are effective and well tolerated even for the most fragile patients. Three randomized trials comparing stereotactic body radiation therapy and surgery failed due to poor accrual. However, taking into account the favourable available data, the choice of stereotactic body radiation therapy in first intention arises. The treatment decision has to be discussed in a multidisciplinary way, while considering the opinion of the patient, who must be clearly informed about the principle of both therapeutic options.
"Applied to peripherally located early stage tumors <5 cm in size, SABR has been shown to produce a local control rate of >90%, with a low incidence of acute and long-term side effects . The prescription dose strength of various radiotherapy fractionation schedules are often compared through 2-Gray biologically dose equivalent (BED) calculations. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), a recent implementation in the practice of radiation oncology, has been shown to confer high rates of local control in the treatment of early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This technique, which involves limited invasive procedures and reduced treatment intervals, offers definitive treatment for patients unable or unwilling to undergo an operation. The use of protons in SABR delivery confers the added physical advantage of normal tissue sparing due to the absence of collateral radiation dose delivered to regions distal to the target. This may translate into clinical benefit and a decreased risk of clinical toxicity in patients with nearby critical structures or limited pulmonary reserve. In this review, we present the rationale for proton-based SABR, principles relating to the delivery and planning of this modality, and a summary of published clinical studies.
BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:389048. DOI:10.1155/2014/389048 · 3.17 Impact Factor
"The most common SBRT dose (54 Gy in 3 fractions for small peripheral lesions) is primarily based on the Indiana University and RTOG 0236 studies which estimated the maximum tolerated dose rather than the minimum dose needed to be iso-effective. Other groups have reported similar results with minimal toxicity using lower doses    . Few studies have reported comparative dosing schedules in a prospective fashion, except for RTOG 0915. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy (AHRT) have favorable local control (LC) relative to conventional fractionation in the treatment of stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the results of our single institution experience with the treatment of early stage NSCLC with SBRT or AHRT in cases where SBRT was felt to be suboptimal.
One hundred and sixty patients with Stage 1 and node negative Stage 2 NSCLC were treated with SBRT or AHRT from 2003 to 2011. Median follow-up was 29.4 and 19 months (mo), respectively. The median dose was 54Gy in 3 fractions (fx) (SBRT) and 70.2Gy in 26 fx (AHRT). Acute and late toxicities (tox) were graded (G) per CTCAE v4. Time to local (LF), regional (RF) and distant (DF) failure were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The impact of patient and tumor related factors on LF were estimated by multivariate Cox proportional hazard model.
Three-year LC rates were 87.7% (SBRT) and 71.7% (AHRT). The 3-year freedom from DF was 73.3% and 68.1%. Median OS was 38.4 (95% CI 29.7-51.6) and 35 (95% CI 22-48.3) mo. No G3 or 4 tox were observed. At 1 year, 30% and 50% of complications resolved, while (5-6%) had persistent chest wall pain. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing dose per fraction and tumor size (>5.5 vs. 4cm) in the AHRT and SBRT group were found to be associated with a reduced (HR 0.33 95% CI 0.13-0.84, p=0.021) and increased (HR: 6.372 95% CI 1.23-32.92, p=0.027) hazard for local failure respectively.
Our results compare favorably with other reports of treatment for early stage NSCLC. AHRT patients had comparable LC despite increased size and central disease. Toxicity was limited and overall survival, regional and distant recurrences were similar between groups.
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