Synthesis, immunosuppressive activity and structure-activity relationship study of a new series of 4-N-piperazinyl-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine analogues.
ABSTRACT The synthesis of a new series of 4-N-piperazinyl-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines is described. The synthetic route allows introducing structural variety at positions 2, 4 and 6 of the scaffold. Evaluation of their immunosuppressive activity in a Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR) assay revealed that the most potent compound has an IC(50)-value of 66 nM and therefore deserves attention for further medicinal chemistry optimization.
- SourceAvailable from: tmc.edu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In recent years, many new immunosuppressive drugs have been discovered and developed for clinical use in transplantation. This review focuses on those drugs (leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, tacrolimus) that have been shown to have immunosuppressive activity in patients. Different anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibodies are also reviewed as an example of a resurgence of development in the area of monoclonal antibodies. The price for reducing the incidence of allograft rejection by improved immunosuppression was thought to be a proportional increase in the incidence of infection and malignancy. Data from Phase III clinical trials of new immunosuppressants, however, show a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of acute rejection produced by these new drugs, which has not been accompanied by increases in infection and malignancy rates. The wide array of new drugs offers the opportunity to use combinations that block different pathways of immune activation while at the same time selecting drug combinations with nonoverlapping toxicity profiles so that doses of each single drug can be reduced below toxicity levels. The immunosuppressive therapy for patients can be tailored according to their individual needs.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 07/1999; 10(6):1366-80. · 8.99 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During the past 50 years, many immunosuppressive drugs have been described. Often their mechanisms of action were established long after their discovery. Eventually these mechanisms were found to fall into five groups: (i) regulators of gene expression; (ii) alkylating agents; (iii) inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis; (iv) inhibitors of de novo pyrimidine synthesis; and (v) inhibitors of kinases and phosphatases. Glucocorticoids exert immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity mainly by inhibiting the expression of genes for interleukin-2 and other mediators. Cyclophosphamide metabolites alkylate DNA bases and preferentially suppress immune responses mediated by B-lymphocytes. Methotrexate and its polyglutamate derivatives suppress inflammatory responses through release of adenosine; they suppress immune responses by inducing the apoptosis of activated T-lymphocytes and inhibiting the synthesis of both purines and pyrimidines. Azathioprine metabolites inhibit several enzymes of purine synthesis. Mycophenolic acid and mizoribine inhibit inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, thereby depleting guanosine nucleotides. Mycophenolic acid induces apoptosis of activated T-lymphocytes. A leflunomide metabolite and Brequinar inhibit dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thereby suppressing pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. Cyclosporine and FK-506 (Tacrolimus) inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin, thereby suppressing the production of IL-2 and other cytokines. In addition, these compounds have recently been found to block the JNK and p38 signaling pathways triggered by antigen recognition in T-cells. In contrast, rapamycin inhibits kinases required for cell cycling and responses to IL-2. Rapamycin also induces apoptosis of activated T-lymphocytes. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory compounds in development include inhibitors of p38 kinase and of the type IV isoform of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase which is expressed in lymphocytes and monocytes.A promising future application of immunosuppressive drugs is their use in a regime to induce tolerance to allografts. The role of leukocytes in grafts, and the induction of apoptosis of clones of responding T-lymphocytes, is discussed.Immunopharmacology 06/2000; 47(2-3):63-83.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A series of 6-aralkyl substituted 2,4-diaminothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines in which the 6-aryl group is separated from the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine ring by two to five methylene groups were synthesized and studied as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium avium, and rat liver. Compounds in which the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine ring is separated from the 6-aryl substituent by three methylene groups were the most potent inhibitors of the series (with IC(50) values ranging from 0.24 and 11.0 microM) but those with two methylene groups between the aromatic rings were the most selective agents.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2003; 38(6):605-11. · 3.50 Impact Factor