Vascular gene expression patterns are conserved in primary and metastatic brain tumors.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 670, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.79). 08/2010; 99(1):13-24. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-009-0105-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Malignant primary glial and secondary metastatic brain tumors represent distinct pathological entities. Nevertheless, both tumor types induce profound angiogenic responses in the host brain microvasculature that promote tumor growth. We hypothesized that primary and metastatic tumors induce similar microvascular changes that could function as conserved angiogenesis based therapeutic targets. We previously isolated glioma endothelial marker genes (GEMs) that were selectively upregulated in the microvasculature of proliferating glioblastomas. We sought to determine whether these genes were similarly induced in the microvasculature of metastatic brain tumors. RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR were used to screen expression levels of 20 candidate GEMs in primary and metastatic clinical brain tumor specimens. Differentially regulated GEMs were further evaluated by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization to localize gene expression using clinical tissue microarrays. Thirteen GEMs were upregulated to a similar degree in both primary and metastatic brain tumors. Most of these genes localize to the cell surface (CXCR7, PV1) or extracellular matrix (COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A1, COL6A2, MMP14, PXDN) and were selectively expressed by the microvasculature. The shared expression profile between primary and metastatic brain tumors suggests that the molecular pathways driving the angiogenic response are conserved, despite differences in the tumor cells themselves. Anti-angiogenic therapies currently in development for primary brain tumors may prove beneficial for brain metastases and vice versa.


Available from: Mahlon Johnson, Sep 05, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human peroxidasin 1 (hsPxd01) is a multidomain heme peroxidase that uses bromide as a cofactor for the formation of sulfilimine crosslinks. The latter confer critical structural reinforcement to collagen IV scaffolds. Here hsPxd01 and various truncated variants lacking non-enzymatic domains were recombinantly expressed in HEK cell lines. The N-glycosylation site occupancy and disulfide pattern, the oligomeric structure and unfolding pathway are reported. The homotrimeric ironprotein contains a covalently-bound ferric high-spin heme per subunit with a standard reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of -233 mV at pH 7.0. Despite sequence homology at the active site and biophysical properties similar to human peroxidases, the catalytic efficiency of bromide oxidation (kcat/KM) of full-length hsPxd01 is rather low but increased upon truncation. This is discussed with respect to its structure and proposed biosynthetic function in collagen IV crosslinking. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2015; 290(17). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.632273 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Immunology letters 10/2010; 133(2):112-4. DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2010.06.010 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The chemokine CXCL12 regulates multiple cell functions through its receptor, CXCR4. However, recent studies have shown that CXCL12 also binds a second receptor, CXCR7, to potentiate signal transduction and cell activity. In contrast to CXCL12/CXCR4, few studies have focused on the role of CXCR7 in vascular biology and its role in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) remains unclear. In this report, we used complementary methods, including immunocytofluorescence, Western blot, and flow cytometry analyses, to demonstrate that CXCR7 was expressed on HBMECs. We then employed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology to knockdown CXCR7 in HBMECs. Knockdown of CXCR7 in HBMECs resulted in significantly reduced HBMEC proliferation, tube formation, and migration, as well as adhesion to matrigel and tumor cells. Blocking CXCR7 with a specific antibody or small molecule antagonist similarly disrupted HBMEC binding to matrigel or tumor cells. We found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced CXCR7 in a time and dose-response manner and that this increase preceded an increase in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Knockdown of CXCR7 resulted in suppression of VCAM-1, suggesting that the reduced binding of CXCR7-knockdown HBMECs may result from suppression of VCAM-1. Collectively, CXCR7 acted as a functional receptor for CXCL12 in brain endothelial cells. Targeting CXCR7 in tumor vasculature may provide novel opportunities for improving brain tumor therapy.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103938. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103938 · 3.53 Impact Factor