Severe malaria is associated with a deficiency of von Willebrand factor cleaving protease, ADAMTS13.
ABSTRACT Severe falciparum malaria remains a major killer in tropical countries. Central in the pathophysiology is mechanical obstruction in the microcirculation caused by cytoadherence and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes. However, the pathogenesis of many features complicating severe malaria, including coma, renal failure and thrombocytopenia, remains incompletely understood. These disease manifestations are also key features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a life-threatening disease strongly associated with a deficiency of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease, ADAMTS13. We measured plasma ADAMTS13 activity, VWF antigen and VWF propeptide levels in 30 patients with severe falciparum malaria, 12 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and 14 healthy Bangladeshi controls. In patients with severe malaria ADAMTS13 activity levels were markedly decreased in comparison to normal controls (mean [95%CI]: 23% [20-26] vs. 64% [55-72]) and VWF antigen and propeptide concentrations were significantly elevated (VWF antigen: 439% [396-481] vs. 64% [46-83]; VWF propeptide: 576% [481-671] vs. 69% [59-78]). In uncomplicated malaria VWF levels were also increased compared to healthy controls but ADAMTS13 activity was normal. The results suggest that decreased ADAMTS13 activity in combination with increased VWF concentrations may contribute to the complications in severe malaria.
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ABSTRACT: A 63-year-old Caucasian woman developed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria when travelling back from Cameroun. No antimalarial chemoprophylaxis had been observed. The patient was immediately admitted to the intensive care unit after evidence of multiple organ failure (coma, shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute renal failure, etc.). However, initial parasitemia was less than 1%. The patient was managed by intravenous quinine and norepinephrine infusion due to refractory shock. The patient developed as an early complication ischemic lesions of both arms and feet. In addition to laboratory changes consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation, there was also evidence for a low activity of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Later complications included repeated candidemia and bacteraemia despite appropriate therapy; the origin appeared to be diffuse ischemic injury of the gastrointestinal tract. The patient ultimately recovered, but quadriamputation was necessary to treat symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG). In severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, ischemic changes may be due to microvascular obstruction, but, in patients with low parasitemia, other endothelial factors may also be involved as observed in other groups of thrombotic microangiopathies.Case Reports in Medicine 01/2014; 2014:696725.
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ABSTRACT: Severe falciparum malaria (SM) remains a major cause of death in tropical countries. The reduced activity of ADAMTS13, increasing levels of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) in SM patients, are assumed as factors that intensify disease severity. However, the reason why ADAMTS13 activity is reduced in SM remains unclear.Objectives: To investigate whether rs4962153, febrile temperature, and microparticles, contribute to reduced ADAMTS13 activity. Genotypic association of rs4962153 with ADAMTS13 antigen and activity was examined in 362 healthy Thai participants. The collagen binding assay was used to study the effects of febrile temperature and microparticles on ADAMTS13 activity. ADAMTS13 antigen and activity were decreased in participants with AA genotype, compared to AG and GG (antigen: p-value = 0.014, and < 0.001; activity: p-value = 0.036, and < 0.002, respectively). There was significantly reduced ADAMTS13 antigen in AG compared to GG (p-value = 0.013), but not in ADAMTS13 activity (p-value = 0.082). The number of rs4962153 A alleles correlated with the reduced level of antigen and activity (p-value <0.001 and p-value = 0.001, respectively). MPs showed an inhibitory effect on ADAMTS13 activity (p-value = 0.025). Finally, ADAMTS13 activity was decreased in a temperature and time-dependent manner. The interaction between these two factors was also observed (p-value <0.001). These findings suggest that the A allele of rs4962153, MPs, and febrile temperature, contribute to reduce ADAMTS13 activity in plasma. These data are useful in malaria or other diseases with reduced ADAMTS13 activity.Malaria Journal 01/2014; 13(1):3. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ADAMTS-13, a plasma reprolysin-like metalloprotease, cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF). Severe deficiency of plasma ADAMTS-13 activity results in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), while mild to moderate deficiencies of plasma ADAMTS-13 activity are emerging risk factors for developing myocardial and cerebral infarction, pre-eclampsia, and malignant malaria. Moreover, Adamts13−/− mice develop more severe inflammatory responses, leading to increased ischemia/perfusion injury and formation of atherosclerosis. Structure–function studies demonstrate that the N-terminal portion of ADAMTS-13 (MDTCS) is necessary and sufficient for proteolytic cleavage of VWF under various conditions and attenuation of arterial/venous thrombosis after oxidative injury. The more distal portion of ADAMTS-13 (TSP1 2–8 repeats and CUB domains) may function as a disulfide bond reductase to prevent an elongation of ultra-large VWF strings on activated endothelial cells and inhibit platelet adhesion/aggregation on collagen surface under flow. Remarkably, the proteolytic cleavage of VWF by ADAMTS-13 is accelerated by FVIII and platelets under fluid shear stress. A disruption of the interactions between FVIII (or platelet glycoprotein 1bα) and VWF dramatically impairs ADAMTS-13-dependent proteolysis of VWF in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that FVIII and platelets may be physiological cofactors regulating VWF proteolysis. Finally, the structure–function and autoantibody mapping studies allow us to identify an ADAMTS-13 variant with increased specific activity but reduced inhibition by autoantibodies in patients with acquired TTP. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the mechanism of VWF proteolysis and tools for the therapy of acquired TTP and perhaps other arterial thrombotic disorders.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2013; 11(s1). · 6.08 Impact Factor