Severe malaria is associated with a deficiency of von Willebrand factor cleaving protease, ADAMTS13.
ABSTRACT Severe falciparum malaria remains a major killer in tropical countries. Central in the pathophysiology is mechanical obstruction in the microcirculation caused by cytoadherence and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes. However, the pathogenesis of many features complicating severe malaria, including coma, renal failure and thrombocytopenia, remains incompletely understood. These disease manifestations are also key features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a life-threatening disease strongly associated with a deficiency of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease, ADAMTS13. We measured plasma ADAMTS13 activity, VWF antigen and VWF propeptide levels in 30 patients with severe falciparum malaria, 12 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and 14 healthy Bangladeshi controls. In patients with severe malaria ADAMTS13 activity levels were markedly decreased in comparison to normal controls (mean [95%CI]: 23% [20-26] vs. 64% [55-72]) and VWF antigen and propeptide concentrations were significantly elevated (VWF antigen: 439% [396-481] vs. 64% [46-83]; VWF propeptide: 576% [481-671] vs. 69% [59-78]). In uncomplicated malaria VWF levels were also increased compared to healthy controls but ADAMTS13 activity was normal. The results suggest that decreased ADAMTS13 activity in combination with increased VWF concentrations may contribute to the complications in severe malaria.
Article: Coagulopathy in malaria.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Blood coagulation activation is frequently found in patients with malaria. Clinically apparent bleeding or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is associated with very severe disease and a high mortality. Protein C, protein S, and antithrombin levels were found to be low in P. falciparum, but were normal in P. vivax infection. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were high in cases of P. falciparum infection whereas tissue plasminogen activator levels were low. Elevated plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vWF propeptide, thrombomodulin, endothelial microparticles have been reported in P. falciparum-infected patients. It has been demonstrated that severe P. falciparum infection is associated with acute endothelial cell (EC) activation, abnormal circulating ultralarge vWF multimers, and a significant reduction in plasma ADAMTS13 function. These changes may result in intravascular platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and microvascular disease. It has also been shown that P. falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) induce tissue factor (TF) expression in microvascular ECs in vitro. Recently, loss of endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) localized to sites of cytoadherent pRBCs in cerebral malaria has been demonstrated. Severe malaria is associated with parasite binding to EPCR. The cornerstone of the treatment of coagulopathy in malaria is the use of effective anti-malarial agents. DIC with spontaneous systemic bleeding should be treated with screened blood products. Study in Thailand has shown that for patients who presented with parasitemia >30% and severe systemic complications such as acute renal failure and ARDS, survival was superior in the group who received exchange transfusion. The use of heparin is generally restricted to patients with DIC and extensive deposition of fibrin, as occurs with purpura fulminans or acral ischemia. Antiplatelet agents interfere with the protective effect of platelets against malaria and should be avoided.Thrombosis Research 09/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ADAMTS-13, a plasma reprolysin-like metalloprotease, cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF). Severe deficiency of plasma ADAMTS-13 activity results in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), while mild to moderate deficiencies of plasma ADAMTS-13 activity are emerging risk factors for developing myocardial and cerebral infarction, pre-eclampsia, and malignant malaria. Moreover, Adamts13−/− mice develop more severe inflammatory responses, leading to increased ischemia/perfusion injury and formation of atherosclerosis. Structure–function studies demonstrate that the N-terminal portion of ADAMTS-13 (MDTCS) is necessary and sufficient for proteolytic cleavage of VWF under various conditions and attenuation of arterial/venous thrombosis after oxidative injury. The more distal portion of ADAMTS-13 (TSP1 2–8 repeats and CUB domains) may function as a disulfide bond reductase to prevent an elongation of ultra-large VWF strings on activated endothelial cells and inhibit platelet adhesion/aggregation on collagen surface under flow. Remarkably, the proteolytic cleavage of VWF by ADAMTS-13 is accelerated by FVIII and platelets under fluid shear stress. A disruption of the interactions between FVIII (or platelet glycoprotein 1bα) and VWF dramatically impairs ADAMTS-13-dependent proteolysis of VWF in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that FVIII and platelets may be physiological cofactors regulating VWF proteolysis. Finally, the structure–function and autoantibody mapping studies allow us to identify an ADAMTS-13 variant with increased specific activity but reduced inhibition by autoantibodies in patients with acquired TTP. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the mechanism of VWF proteolysis and tools for the therapy of acquired TTP and perhaps other arterial thrombotic disorders.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2013; 11(s1). · 6.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelial activation may contribute to development of severe disease from Plasmodium falciparum infection, but optimal markers of endothelial activation in severe malaria, the extent of endothelial activation in asymptomatic infection, and the effect of blood group O on endothelial activation have not been defined. Serum levels of 3 markers of endothelial activation-von Willebrand factor (VWF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1)-were assessed in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM) (n = 86), children with uncomplicated malaria (UM) (n = 81), and community children (CC) (n = 90). Serum VWF, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels were all elevated in asymptomatic community children with microscopy-confirmed parasitemia when compared with children without parasitemia by microscopy or polymerase chain reaction (all, P ≤ .05). Levels of VWF, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were higher in children with UM than in CC (all, P < 0.001), but only VWF levels effectively distinguished CM from UM (P < 0.001), a finding confirmed by receiver operating characteristic analyses (area under the curve = 0.67; 95% confidence interval, .58-.75). Von Willebrand factor levels were lower in children with blood group O versus non-O blood groups across the disease spectrum, but VWF levels remained higher in CM versus UM, even after controlling for blood group. Endothelial activation, as assessed by serum levels of VWF, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1, occurs even in subclinical P. falciparum parasitemia. Von Willebrand factor levels increase with greater malaria disease severity. Blood group O is associated with lower VWF levels, but presence of blood group O alone does not explain the higher VWF levels seen in children with CM.Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 03/2012; 1(1):16-25.