As one of the dominant amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) proteases, neprilysin (NEP) plays a crucial role in maintaining a physiologic balance between Abeta production and catabolism. We have previously shown that NEP is modified by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) adducts, resulting in decreased activity in the brain of AD patients and cultured cells. In order to determine whether antioxidants can rescue NEP, SH-SY5Y cells were treated with HNE or Abeta, together with N-acetylcysteine for 24 hours, prior to analysis of NEP protein levels, activity, and oxidative modifications. Intracellular NEP developed HNE adducts after 24 hours of HNE or Abeta treatment as determined by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and double immunofluorescence staining. N-acetylcysteine at 10 to 100 microM alleviated HNE adduction after HNE or Abeta treatment. In keeping with previous reports, HNE-modified NEP showed decreased catalytic activity. The present study demonstrates that antioxidants can be used to spare NEP from oxidative modification, suggesting a potential mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in aging or Alzheimer's disease.
"Preincubation with NAC was able to prevent HNE and Aβ-induced HNE addition to neprilysin and thus maintain neprilysin activity . We suggest that NAC may be protective through modulation of Aβ formation and degradation via influence on APP transcription, processing, signaling pathways, and preventing oxidative stress. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been associated with the onset and progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). AD and MCI brain and plasma display extensive oxidative stress as indexed by protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, DNA oxidation, and decreased antioxidants. The most abundant endogenous antioxidant, glutathione, plays a significant role in combating oxidative stress. The ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione is utilized as a measure of intensity of oxidative stress. Antioxidants have long been considered as an approach to slow down AD progression. In this review, we focus on the elevation on glutathione through N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and γ-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester (GCEE) as a potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid isolated from various plant sources, has been identified as a potential neuroprotectant. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of kaempferol against 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-induced apoptosis in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. Kaempferol inhibited 4-HNE-mediated apoptosis, characterized by nuclear condensation, down-regulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, and activation of proapoptotic caspase-3. Kaempferol inhibited 4-HNE-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). More importantly, kaempferol directly bound p47(phox), a cytosolic subunit of NADPH oxidase (NOX), and significantly inhibited 4-HNE-induced activation of NOX. The antiapoptotic effects of kaempferol were replicated by the NOX inhibitor apocynin, suggesting that NOX is an important enzyme in its effects. Our results suggest that kaempferol attenuates 4-HNE-induced activation of JNK and apoptosis by binding p47(phox) of NOX and potently inhibiting activation of the NOX-JNK signaling pathway in neuron-like cells. Altogether, these results suggest that kaempferol may be a potent prophylactic against NOX-mediated neurodegeneration.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2011; 337(3):747-54. DOI:10.1124/jpet.110.176925 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The advent and wide introduction of antiretroviral therapy has greatly improved the survival and longevity of HIV-infected patients. Unfortunately, despite antiretroviral therapy treatment, these patients are still afflicted with many complications including cognitive dysfunction. There is a growing body of reports indicating accelerated deposition of amyloid plaques, which are composed of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), in HIV-infected brains, though how HIV viral infection precipitates Aβ accumulation is poorly understood. It is suggested that viral infection leads to increased production and impaired degradation of Aβ. Mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages and microglia) that are productively infected by HIV in brains play a pivotal role in Aβ degradation through the expression and execution of two endopeptidases, neprilysin (NEP) and insulin-degrading enzyme. In this study, we report that NEP has the dominant endopeptidase activity toward Aβ in macrophages. Further, we demonstrate that monomeric Aβ degradation by primary cultured macrophages and microglia was significantly impaired by HIV infection. This was accompanied with great reduction of NEP endopeptidase activity, which might be due to the diminished transport of NEP to the cell surface and intracellular accumulation at the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. Therefore, these data suggest that malfunction of NEP in infected macrophages may contribute to acceleration of β amyloidosis in HIV-inflicted brains, and modulation of macrophages may be a potential preventative target of Aβ-related cognitive disorders in HIV-affected patients.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 186(12):6925-32. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1100211 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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