Problem-solving skills training for vulnerable families of children with persistent asthma: report of a randomized trial on health-related quality of life outcomes.
ABSTRACT To test the efficacy of problem-solving skill training (PST) in improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with persistent asthma from predominantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) Spanish-speaking Hispanic families.
Randomized controlled trial comparing standard care waitlist (SC) control, home-visiting asthma education/care coordination (CC), and combined intervention (CC + PST) at baseline, after intervention, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was parent proxy-report child HRQOL (PedsQL).
Participants (n = 252) were 83.3% Hispanic and 56.3% monolingual Spanish speakers, and 72.6% of mothers had not graduated high school. We found a significant (P = 0.05) intervention effect for parent proxy-reported child generic (but not asthma-specific) HRQOL, with CC + PST superior to SC [83.8 vs 79.8; adjusted mean difference of 4.05 points (95% confidence interval 0.63-7.4], but no difference between the CC and SC groups.
In this sample of vulnerable families of children with persistent asthma, a CC + PST intervention was efficacious in improving children's generic HRQOL.
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- "Complete outcome data (i.e. sample size, means, standard deviations) were available from the published paper in 13 trials (Barakat 2010; Connelly 2006; Hoekstra-Weebers 1998; Kashikar-Zuck 2005; Kashikar- Zuck 2012; Laffel 2003; Ng 2008; Palermo 2009; Seid 2010; Stehl 2009; Wade 2006; Wade 2006b; Wade 2011). Seven authors provided data in response to our requests (Ambrosino 2008; Askins 2009; Celano 2012; Levy 2010; Niebel 2000; Sahler 2002; Sahler 2005). "
ABSTRACT: Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include parent only or parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to treat parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and/or family functioning. No comprehensive, meta-analytic reviews have been published in this area. To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include coping strategies for parents of children/adolescents with chronic illnesses (painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, skin diseases or gynaecological disorders). The therapy will aim to improve parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and family functioning. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. The initial search was from inception of these databases to June 2011 and we conducted a follow-up search from June 2011 to March 2012. We identified additional studies from the reference list of retrieved papers and from discussion with investigators. Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents (under 19 years of age) with a chronic illness compared to active control, wait list control or treatment as usual. We excluded studies if the parent component was a coaching intervention, the aim of the intervention was health prevention/promotion, the comparator was a pharmacological treatment, the child/adolescent had an illness not listed above or the study included children with more than one type of chronic illness. Further to this, we excluded studies when the sample size of either comparator group was fewer than 10 at post-treatment. We included 35 RCTs involving a total of 2723 primary trial participants. Two review authors extracted data from 26 studies. We analysed data using two categories. First, we analysed data by each medical condition across all treatment classes at two time points (immediately post-treatment and the first available follow-up). Second, we analysed data by each treatment class (cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy (FT), problem solving therapy (PST) and multisystemic therapy (MST)) across all medical conditions at two time points (immediately post-treatment and the first available follow-up). We assessed treatment effectiveness on six possible outcomes: parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and family functioning. Across all treatment types, psychological therapies that included parents significantly improved child symptoms for painful conditions immediately post-treatment. Across all medical conditions, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) significantly improved child symptoms and problem solving therapy significantly improved parent behaviour and parent mental health immediately post-treatment. There were no other effects at post-treatment or follow-up. The risk of bias of included studies is described. There is no evidence on the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include parents in most outcome domains of functioning, for a large number of common chronic illnesses in children. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of including parents in psychological therapies that reduce pain in children with painful conditions. There is also good evidence for the effectiveness of CBT that includes parents for improving the primary symptom complaints when available data were included from chronic illness conditions. Finally, there is good evidence for the effectiveness of problem solving therapy delivered to parents on improving parent problem solving skills and parent mental health. All effects are immediately post-treatment. There are no significant findings for any treatment effects in any condition at follow-up.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 02/2012; 8(8):CD009660. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD009660.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Problem-solving is one of the necessities of life in twenty first century. Therefore, Psychologists consider it as a skill that everyone must learn it. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of the transac-tional analysis, existential, cognitive, and integrated group therapies on improving problem-solving skills. For this purpose, 65 subjects of the clients who were referring to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad's Mental Health Centre were selected randomly and subjects placed in 5 groups in random assignment method (13 par-ticipants in each group). The research method is Pre-test/Post-test control group design. To gather the data, Long & Cassidy's problem solving styles questionnaire (1996) was used. In the descriptive level, the data were ana-lyzed using mean and standard deviation, and in the inferential level Analysis of Covariance test (ANCOVA) was used. The results of data analysis were indicative of the fact that after modifying pretest scores, there was a significant difference between group's subjects. The results showed that group therapies were effective on im-proving problem-solving skills and that cognitive and integrated group therapies were more effective on im-proving problem-solving skills comparing to other groups. Regarding the results of the present study, it can be concluded that transactional analysis, existential, cognitive and integrated group therapies were effective on im-proving problem-solving skills of the clients who were referring to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad's Men-tal Health Centre.
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ABSTRACT: While guidelines recommend that children with asthma should receive asthma education, it is not known if education delivered in the home is superior to usual care or the same education delivered elsewhere. The home setting allows educators to reach populations (such as the economically disadvantaged) that may experience barriers to care (such as lack of transportation) within a familiar environment. To perform a systematic review on educational interventions for asthma delivered in the home to children, caregivers or both, and to determine the effects of such interventions on asthma-related health outcomes. We also planned to make the education interventions accessible to readers by summarising the content and components. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials, which includes the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO, and handsearched respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also searched the Education Resources Information Center database (ERIC), reference lists of trials and review articles (last search January 2011). We included randomised controlled trials of asthma education delivered in the home to children, their caregivers or both. In the first comparison, eligible control groups were provided usual care or the same education delivered outside of the home. For the second comparison, control groups received a less intensive educational intervention delivered in the home. Two authors independently selected the trials, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We pooled dichotomous data with fixed-effect odds ratio and continuous data with mean difference (MD) using a fixed-effect where possible. A total of 12 studies involving 2342 children were included. Eleven out of 12 trials were conducted in North America, within urban or suburban settings involving vulnerable populations. The studies were overall of good methodological quality. They differed markedly in terms of age, severity of asthma, context and content of the educational intervention leading to substantial clinical heterogeneity. Due to this clinical heterogeneity, we did not pool results for our primary outcome, the number of patients with exacerbations requiring emergency department (ED) visit. The mean number of exacerbations requiring ED visits per person at six months was not significantly different between the home-based intervention and control groups (N = 2 studies; MD 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.20 to 0.27). Only one trial contributed to our other primary outcome, exacerbations requiring a course of oral corticosteroids. Hospital admissions also demonstrated wide variation between trials with significant changes in some trials in both directions. Quality of life improved in both education and control groups over time.A table summarising some of the key components of the education programmes is included in the review. We found inconsistent evidence for home-based asthma educational interventions compared to standard care, education delivered outside of the home or a less intensive educational intervention delivered at home. Although education remains a key component of managing asthma in children, advocated in numerous guidelines, this review does not contribute further information on the fundamental content and optimum setting for such educational interventions.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2011; 10(10):CD008469. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD008469.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor