Validation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS/MS for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair according to forensic guidelines.
ABSTRACT The analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair is a powerful tool for chronic alcohol abuse control because of the typical wide detection window of the hair matrix and due to the possibility of segmentation, allowing evaluation of alcohol consumption in different periods. Additionally, EtG in hair is often the only diagnostic parameter of choice for alcohol abuse when other clinical parameters such as ALT, AST, gammaGT and CDT (asialotransferrin and disialotransferrin) are in the normal range and EtG in urine negative. In this paper, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a new method based on hair extraction with water, clean-up by solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in combination with GC-MS/MS according to forensic guidelines. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 2.8 to 1000 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The LLOQ was 2.8 pg/mg and the LLOD was 0.6 pg/mg. An error profile calculated according to the "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" (GUM) at 99% confidence intervals for the range 5-750 pg/mg hair did not exceed 10%. This range corresponds to more than 98% of the positive samples analysed.
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ABSTRACT: The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) has provided cutoffs for the quantification of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair to indicate occasional or chronic/excessive alcohol consumption. Although several sensitive methods have been reported, past proficiency test results show a lack of reproducibility. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LLOQ of 10 pg EtG/mg hair) has been validated according to the international guidelines, including the successful participation in five proficiency tests. This method was subsequently used to evaluate the impact of different grinding conditions (cut, weakly or extensively pulverized hair samples) on the final measured EtG concentration. Hair from alcohol consumers (n = 2) and commercially available quality control samples (QCs) (n = 2) was used. For the QCs, extensive pulverization led to a significantly higher amount of measured EtG. In the hair samples obtained from volunteers, cut or weakly pulverized hair resulted in EtG concentrations below the LLOQ, while the mean concentrations of 14 and 40 pg EtG/mg hair were determined after extensive pulverization. Differences in sample preparation could partially explain inter-laboratory variability. As the differences in results can lead to a different interpretation even when applying the SoHT cutoffs, it is of interest to standardize sample preparation techniques in the field of EtG hair testing.Journal of analytical toxicology 10/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to assess the utility of coloured hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol in a large statistically significant population. The positivity rate, the 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of five amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, four opiates, methadone, buprenorphine, seven benzodiazepines, and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in 9488 non-treated and 1026 cosmetically treated (dyed or bleached) authentic hair samples was compared. Analytical methods used were accredited for forensic purposes at the cut-offs defined by the German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. Considering only the drug classes for which at least 10 positive samples were detected, the positivity rate in non-treated hair was highest for alcohol (4.50%; measured using EtG at concentrations ≥ 7 pg/mg hair), followed by THC (2.00%), cocaine (1.75%), and amphetamine (0.59%). While the 1st to 99th percentile range was significantly lower for drugs in treated, compared to non-treated hair, no significant change was observed for EtG. Additionally, no significant difference in the positivity rate was observed between treated hair and non-treated hair for both drugs and EtG. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the influence of cosmetic treatment, mainly dying, on the positivity rate for both drugs and EtG in hair samples submitted routinely for abstinence testing and the first to indicate that dyed and eventually bleached hair is not necessarily useless in detecting drugs and/or alcohol consumption, thus making coloured hair analysis still useful, often being the only possibility to prove such misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Drug Testing and Analysis 06/2014; 6 Suppl 1:110-9. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is widely used as a marker for assessment of alcohol consumption behavior. In this study the influence of special cleansing shampoos on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair was investigated. For that purpose an optimized LC-MS/MS method was developed using a Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column and validated according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Twenty-five hair samples of persons with known alcohol consumption behavior were investigated (21 positive samples and 4 blank samples). The hair samples were divided into two strands of hair and were analyzed after treatment with one out of four cleansing shampoos and without shampoo treatment. EtG concentrations in hair did not show any significant differences after a single application of the different cleansing shampoos. EtG was still detectable in all the positive hair samples without significant concentration change. These results clearly demonstrated that a single application of the tested cleansing shampoos did not remove EtG from hair and therefore had no influence on EtG concentration in analytical hair analysis.Forensic science international. 07/2014; 244C:20-24.