Effects of ghrelin administration after total gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study.
ABSTRACT Body weight (BW) loss and reduction of blood ghrelin level are commonly observed after total gastrectomy (TG). A prospective study was designed to elucidate whether exogenous ghrelin administration prevents postoperative BW loss by improving appetite and oral food intake in patients with gastric cancer after undergoing TG.
In this randomized phase II study, 21 patients undergoing TG were assigned to a ghrelin (11 patients) or placebo group (10 patients). They received intravenous infusion of synthetic human ghrelin (3 microg/kg) or saline twice daily for 10 days after starting oral food intake following surgery. Changes in BW, appetite visual analog scale score, food intake calories, body composition, basal metabolic rate, and various blood test results were evaluated.
Excluding one patient who developed profound diaphoresis during ghrelin infusion, 20 patients completed the study. Food intake and appetite were significantly higher with ghrelin compared with placebo (average, 13.8 vs 10.4 kcal/kg/day [P = .030] and 5.7 vs 3.9 cm [P = .032], respectively). BW loss was significantly lower in the ghrelin than in the placebo group (-1.4% vs -3.7%; P = .044). Fat mass, lean body mass, and basal metabolic rate decreased significantly in the placebo group; however, the reductions in lean body mass and basal metabolic rate were not significant in the ghrelin group, although that of fat mass was significant.
Short-term administration of synthetic ghrelin was safe and successfully lessened postoperative BW loss and improved appetite and food intake after TG.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Context:Ghrelin is an endogenous stimulator of growth hormone and is implicated in a number of physiologic processes. Clinical trials have been performed in a variety of patient populations, but there is no comprehensive review of the beneficial and adverse consequences of ghrelin administration to humans.Evidence Acquisition:PubMed was utilized and the reference list of each article was screened. We included 121 published articles in which ghrelin was administered to humans.Evidence Synthesis:Ghrelin has been administered as an infusion or a bolus in a variety of doses to 1850 study participants, including healthy participants and patients with obesity, prior gastrectomy, cancer, pituitary disease, diabetes mellitus, eating disorders, and other conditions. There is strong evidence that ghrelin stimulates appetite and increases circulating GH, ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and glucose across varied patient populations. There is a paucity of evidence regarding the effects of ghrelin on LH, FSH, TSH, insulin, lipolysis, body composition, cardiac function, pulmonary function, the vasculature and sleep. Adverse effects occurred in 20% of participants, with a predominance of flushing and gastric rumbles and a mild degree of severity. The few serious adverse events occurred in patients with advanced illness and were not clearly attributable to ghrelin. Route of administration may affect the pattern of adverse effects.Conclusions:Existing literature support the short-term safety of ghrelin administration and its efficacy as an appetite stimulant in diverse patient populations. There is some evidence to suggest that ghrelin has wider ranging therapeutic effects, though these areas require further investigation.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2013; · 6.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG) is commonly performed for early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper stomach; however, the incidence of anastomotic complications remains high, and postoperative nutritional status is not satisfactory. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and nutritional impact of a novel surgical procedure, laparoscopy-assisted subtotal gastrectomy (LAsTG). This was a retrospective study of 167 patients with EGC in the upper stomach. Of these, 57 patients underwent LAsTG, while 110 patients underwent LATG. Postoperative change in body weight, and serum concentration of albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were compared between the LAsTG and LATG groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the influence of potential confounding factors. Frequency of anastomotic complications was significantly higher in the LATG group (16.3 %) than in the LAsTG group (5.3 %, P = 0.040). Postoperative recovery of body weight at 12 months after surgery was significantly better in the LAsTG group (89.8 ± 1.4 %) than in the LATG group (82.1 ± 1.0 %, P < 0.001). By ANCOVA, adjusted mean differences of Alb and TP at 12 months after surgery between the LAsTG and LATG groups were 0.226 g/dl (95 % CI 0.141-0.312; P < 0.001) and 0.380 g/dl (95 % CI 0.265-0.495; P < 0.001); thus, the surgical procedure was significantly associated with the postoperative Alb and TP levels. LAsTG could be a better choice than LATG for EGC in the upper stomach as a result of improvements in the incidence of anastomotic complications and postoperative nutritional status.Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle loss is associated with physical disability, nosocomial infections, postoperative complications, and decreased survival. Preventing the loss of skeletal muscle mass after gastrectomy may lead to improved outcomes. The aims of this study were to assess changes in skeletal muscle mass after total gastrectomy (TG) and to clarify the clinical factors affecting significant loss of skeletal muscle after TG. One hundred and two patients undergoing TG for primary gastric cancer underwent abdominal computed tomography before and 1 year after TG to precisely quantify postoperative changes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified clinical factors contributing to significant loss of skeletal muscle after TG. At 1 year after TG, the mass of both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was reduced by 6.20 ± 6.80 and 65.8 ± 36.1 % of the preoperative values, respectively, and 26 patients (25.5 %) showed a significant loss of skeletal muscle of more than 10 %. Adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for ≥6 months (hazard ratio 26.61, 95 % confidence interval, 3.487-203.1) was identified as the single independent risk factor for a significant loss of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle loss was exacerbated by extended adjuvant chemotherapy after TG. Further research should identify appropriate nutritional interventions for maintaining skeletal muscle mass and leading to improved outcomes.Gastric Cancer 04/2014; · 3.99 Impact Factor