Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.
ABSTRACT African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s).
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An integrated strategy of intervention against tsetse flies was implemented in the Upper West Region of Ghana (9.62°-11.00° N, 1.40°-2.76° W), covering an area of ≈18,000 km(2) within the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. Two species were targeted: Glossina tachinoides and Glossina palpalis gambiensis. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objectives were to test the potentiality of the sequential aerosol technique (SAT) to eliminate riverine tsetse species in a challenging subsection (dense tree canopy and high tsetse densities) of the total sprayed area (6,745 km(2)) and the subsequent efficacy of an integrated strategy including ground spraying (≈100 km(2)), insecticide treated targets (20,000) and insecticide treated cattle (45,000) in sustaining the results of tsetse suppression in the whole intervention area. The aerial application of low-dosage deltamethrin aerosols (0.33-0.35 g a.i/ha) was conducted along the three main rivers using five custom designed fixed-wings Turbo thrush aircraft. The impact of SAT on tsetse densities was monitored using 30 biconical traps deployed from two weeks before until two weeks after the operations. Results of the SAT monitoring indicated an overall reduction rate of 98% (from a pre-intervention mean apparent density per trap per day (ADT) of 16.7 to 0.3 at the end of the fourth and last cycle). One year after the SAT operations, a second survey using 200 biconical traps set in 20 sites during 3 weeks was conducted throughout the intervention area to measure the impact of the integrated control strategy. Both target species were still detected, albeit at very low densities (ADT of 0.27 inside sprayed blocks and 0.10 outside sprayed blocks). CONCLUSIONSSIGNIFICANCE: The SAT operations failed to achieve elimination in the monitored section, but the subsequent integrated strategy maintained high levels of suppression throughout the intervention area, which will contribute to improving animal health, increasing animal production and fostering food security.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 03/2013; 7(3):e2135. · 4.57 Impact Factor
- PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 04/2013; 7(4):e2022. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) and human African trypanosomosis (HAT). In March 2010, the Government of Ghana initiated a large scale integrated tsetse eradication campaign in the Upper West Region (UWR) (≈18,000 km(2)) under the umbrella of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). We investigated the structuring of Glossina tachinoides populations within and between the three main river basins of the target area in the UWR. Out of a total sample of 884 flies, a sub-sample of 266 was genotyped at nine microsatellite loci. The significance of the different hierarchical levels was tested using Yang's parameters estimated with Weir and Cockerham's method. A significant effect of traps within groups (pooling traps no more than 3 km distant from each other), of groups within river basins and of river basins within the whole target area was observed. Isolation by distance between traps was highly significant. A local density of 0.48-0.61 flies/m(2) was estimated and a dispersal distance that approximated 11 m per generation [CI 9, 17]. No significant sex-biased dispersal was detected. Dispersal distances of G. tachinoides in the UWR were relatively low, possibly as a result of the fragmentation of the habitat and the seasonality of the Kulpawn and Sissili rivers. Moreover, very high fly population densities were observed in the sample sites, which potentially reduces dispersal at constant habitat saturation, because the probability that migrants can established is reduced (density dependent dispersal). However, the observed spatial dispersal was deemed sufficient for a G. tachinoides-cleared area to be reinvaded from neighboring populations in adjacent river basins. These data corroborate results from other population genetics studies in West Africa, which indicate that G. tachinoides populations from different river basins cannot be considered isolated.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 04/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor