Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: Consequences for area-wide integrated pest management

Cirad, UMR Contrôle des maladies animales exotiques et émergentes, Campus International de Baillarguet, F34398 Montpellier, France. <>
Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 3.02). 03/2010; 10(2):321-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2009.12.009
Source: PubMed


African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s).

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    • "density), there was no further reduction of the density of the G. tachinoides population after subsequent cycles. Moreover, the impact of targets and live baits, also used during this campaign, is also reduced by a lower dispersal of the flies (Bouyer et al., 2010b). Sex biased dispersal is more difficult to detect when dispersal is smaller and fragmentation of the populations increases (Goudet et al., 2002; Prugnolle and De Meeûs, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) and human African trypanosomosis (HAT). In March 2010, the Government of Ghana initiated a large scale integrated tsetse eradication campaign in the Upper West Region (UWR) (≈18,000 km2) under the umbrella of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). We investigated the structuring of Glossina tachinoides populations within and between the three main river basins of the target area in the UWR. Out of a total sample of 884 flies, a sub-sample of 266 was genotyped at nine microsatellite loci. The significance of the different hierarchical levels was tested using Yang’s parameters estimated with Weir and Cockerham’s method. A significant effect of traps within groups (pooling traps no more than 3 km distant from each other), of groups within river basins and of river basins within the whole target area was observed. Isolation by distance between traps was highly significant. A local density of 0.48-0.61 flies/m2 was estimated and a dispersal distance that approximated 11 m per generation [CI 9, 17]. No significant sex-biased dispersal was detected. Dispersal distances of G. tachinoides in the UWR were relatively low, possibly as a result of the fragmentation of the habitat and the seasonality of the Kulpawn and Sissili rivers. Moreover, very high fly population densities were observed in the sample sites, which potentially reduces dispersal at constant habitat saturation, because the probability that migrants can established is reduced (density dependent dispersal). However, the observed spatial dispersal was deemed sufficient for a G. tachinoides-cleared area to be reinvaded from neighboring populations in adjacent river basins. These data corroborate results from other population genetics studies in West Africa, which indicate that G. tachinoides populations from different river basins cannot be considered isolated.
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    • "Frequent human movements between islands and the mainland (fishing boats and daily ferry transport) may contribute to passive dispersal [79]. The extent of genetic connectivity of fly populations in this study is congruent with the general finding of other genetic studies on Gff[16,26] and other riverine species of tsetse [13,14,17,80]. In G. p. gambiensis, however, Solano et al.[81] report very low levels of migration between coastal sites and the Loos islands, situated 30 km off the coast of Guinea. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in Uganda. The Lake Victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in Uganda and 1 in Kenya), under a Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). We screened tsetse flies from the three Ugandan PATTEC blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from continental and offshore populations to provide empirical data to support this initiative. Methods We collected tsetse samples from 11 sites across the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda. We performed genetic analyses on 409 of the collected tsetse flies and added data collected for 278 individuals in a previous study. The flies were screened across 15 microsatellite loci and the resulting data were used to assess the temporal stability of populations, to analyze patterns of genetic exchange and structuring, to estimate dispersal rates and evaluate the sex bias in dispersal, as well as to estimate demographic parameters (NE and NC). Results We found that tsetse populations in this region were stable over 4-16 generations and belong to 4 genetic clusters. Two genetic clusters (1 and 2) corresponded approximately to PATTEC blocks 1 and 2, while the other two (3 and 4) fell within PATTEC block 3. Island populations grouped into the same genetic clusters as neighboring mainland sites, suggesting presence of gene flow between these sites. There was no evidence of the stretch of water separating islands from the mainland forming a significant barrier to dispersal. Dispersal rates ranged from 2.5 km per generation in cluster 1 to 14 km per generation in clusters 3 and 4. We found evidence of male-biased dispersal. Few breeders are successfully dispersing over large distances. Effective population size estimates were low (33–310 individuals), while census size estimates ranged from 1200 (cluster 1) to 4100 (clusters 3 and 4). We present here a novel technique that adapts an existing census size estimation method to sampling without replacement, the scheme used in sampling tsetse flies. Conclusion Our study suggests that different control strategies should be implemented for the three PATTEC blocks and that, given the high potential for re-invasion from island sites, mainland and offshore sites in each block should be targeted at the same time.
    Parasites & Vectors 10/2012; 5(1):222. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-5-222 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    • "[29]). For these loci, data where coded as missing in males for heterozygote dependent analyses (FIS, null alleles, drop outs and short allele dominance), and homozygous for the allele present for other analyses (clustering, differentiation and linkage disequilibrium) following a routinely undertaken protocol [7,8,29,30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae) is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo) using eight microsatellite DNA markers. A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.
    Parasites & Vectors 07/2011; 4(1):140. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-4-140 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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