Expression of immune-related genes in one phase of embryonic development of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus.
ABSTRACT Crayfish do not have larval stage as other crustacean such as penaeid shrimp they spawn their eggs until hatching and what hatches out from the eggs are miniature crayfish known as juveniles. In order to address the question whether immune genes are initially expressed during the embryo development in the egg stage, the expression of some immune-related genes: prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, hemocyanin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), plcrustin, astakine-1, 2 and transglutaminase (TGase) were determined in the middle phase of crayfish embryo development. Furthermore, immune challenge was used to determine the immune response of eggs by immersing them in a solution of the highly pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that all tested genes are present except proPO in this phase of crayfish embryo development and none of the genes tested changed their expression following immersion in A. hydrophila. The proPO transcript has been reported from hemocytes in crustaceans and it plays crucial roles in crustacean immune response. This may indicate that the development of immune-competent hemocytes in this stage of crayfish embryo is not completed and the egg shell as such plays an important role as a shield in protecting the embryo from bacteria and maybe also other pathogens.
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ABSTRACT: Transglutaminases (TG) are important for blood coagulation and post-translation remodeling of proteins. Using a plaque screening assay, we isolated cDNA encoding a novel TG from a shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hemocyte cDNA library. The TG cDNA consists of 2988 bp with an open reading frame of 2271 bp. The deduced protein has 757 amino acid residues, a calculated molecular mass of 84,713 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.56. Neither a typical hydrophobic leader sequence nor a transmembrane domain could be identified from the deduced sequence. Thus, shrimp TG may be a typical cytoplasmic protein. The sequence of shrimp TG was similar to crayfish, other invertebrate and vertebrate TG sequences. Enzyme activity was detected in all organs tested. This is consistent with the widespread, low-level expression of TG mRNA. However, high levels of TG expression were detected in hematopoietic tissue. TG signals were stronger in mitotic cells, indicating that cell proliferation and TG synthesis are associated. Preliminary data showed that recombinant TG existed the enzyme activity but lacked coagulation activity.Developmental & Comparative Immunology 05/2004; 28(4):279-94. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gravid females of Penaeus semisulcatus were spawned in the laboratory by natural means. The embryos were documented and the larvae were reared from hatching to postlarval stage at 28.2–30.0°C and 33.5–34.5gkg−1 salinity for about 10days (223h 55min). Six naupliar stages, three protozoea stages, three mysis stages and the first postlarval stage were described and illustrated. The larvae were fed only with microalgae Tetraselmis tetrathele and Chaetoceros gracilis from first protozoea until the second mysis, with about 90% survival rate; from the third mysis until the first postlarva they were fed with similar microalgae coupled with rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia nauplii. The embryonic and larval stages of P. semisulcatus are generally similar to those of other closely related species in the family Penaeidae, such as Melicertus canaliculatus, Fenneropenaeus merguiensis, and Marsupenaeus japonicus, except for the size and structure of diagnostic characters, setation of appendages and duration of metamorphoses. The change in the feeding habit during ontogeny was related to morphological transformation of the feeding apparatus of larvae and postlarvae. This paper is the first comprehensive and complete account of the early developmental stages of P. semisulcatus.Hydrobiologia 04/2006; 560(1):175-196. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The egg development of the freshwater crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana) under laboratory conditions is studied in this work from spawning to hatching. The sequence of its development is presented here, and the chronology of the different embryonic phases is established at one specific temperature (15.5 degrees +/- 1 degree C).The Anatomical Record 12/1987; 219(3):304-10.