Crayfish do not have larval stage as other crustacean such as penaeid shrimp they spawn their eggs until hatching and what hatches out from the eggs are miniature crayfish known as juveniles. In order to address the question whether immune genes are initially expressed during the embryo development in the egg stage, the expression of some immune-related genes: prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin, hemocyanin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), plcrustin, astakine-1, 2 and transglutaminase (TGase) were determined in the middle phase of crayfish embryo development. Furthermore, immune challenge was used to determine the immune response of eggs by immersing them in a solution of the highly pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that all tested genes are present except proPO in this phase of crayfish embryo development and none of the genes tested changed their expression following immersion in A. hydrophila. The proPO transcript has been reported from hemocytes in crustaceans and it plays crucial roles in crustacean immune response. This may indicate that the development of immune-competent hemocytes in this stage of crayfish embryo is not completed and the egg shell as such plays an important role as a shield in protecting the embryo from bacteria and maybe also other pathogens.
"In the present study, PmMIP transcript showed similar patterns as the proPO transcript under shrimp development, and both transcripts are present at very low levels in nauplius stages and then the level of this transcript was dramatically increased in zoea stage and onwards. Similar results have been reported in the crayfish embryo development in the egg stage that these two genes are not expressed . This suggested that MIP is needed when the proPO system is complete and present in the animal. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanization is an important component of the innate immune responses in invertebrates and it is essential for defense against invading microorganism. Melanin formation, which is a result of activation of the so called prophenoloxidase activating system, needs to be controlled due to the dangerous effects of quinones and melanin which are produced during the process of melanization. Here, a cDNA for a melanization inhibition protein (MIP), named PmMIP, was identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon by RT-PCR using degenerated oligonucleotide primers and RACE-PCR. The complete sequence significantly matched MIP of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (PlMIP). PmMIP contains an N-terminal signal peptide and a fibrinogen related domain (FReD). RT-PCR was applied to examine the expression profiles of PmMIP in various tissues of juvenile P. monodon. PmMIP was expressed in all examined tissues except hemocytes and at very low levels in hepatopancreas and ovaries. The expression of this gene was very low during the larval stages and hardly present in egg and at the nauplius stage. A time-course expression analysis of PmMIP upon Vibrio harveyi challenge at protein levels in plasma was determined. The result shows that MIP protein in plasma was induced at 6 h and disappeared at 12 and 24 h and then the protein reappeared at 48 and 72 h post injection. These results suggest that upon bacterial infection the PmMIP protein is first released from tissues into hemolymph and then degraded to allow melanization to occur for fighting against bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The author discusses their progress in investigating the influences of crystallographic orientation and of strain on the nonlinear and electro-optical properties of III-V semiconductor compounds, and they present examples of how these orientation-dependent properties can be used to design novel optical devices
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crustaceans are a large and diverse invertebrate animal group that mounts a complex and efficient innate immune response against a variety of microorganisms. The crustacean immune system is primarily related to cellular responses and the production and release of important immune effectors into the hemolymph. Antimicrobial proteins and/or peptides (AMPs) are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, 15 distinct AMP families are currently recognized, although the great majority (14 families) comes from members of the order Decapoda. Crustacean AMPs are generally cationic, gene-encoded molecules that are mainly produced by circulating immune-competent cells (hemocytes) or are derived from unrelated proteins primarily involved in other biological functions. In this review, we tentatively classified the crustacean AMPs into four main groups based on their amino acid composition, structural features and multi-functionality. We also attempted to summarize the current knowledge on their implication both in an efficient response to microbial infections and in crustacean survival.
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