Altered local coherence in the default mode network due to sevoflurane anesthesia.
ABSTRACT Recently we introduced a robust measure, integrated local correlation (ILC), of local connectivity in the brain using fMRI data which reflects the temporal correlation of brain activity in every voxel neighborhood. The current work studies ILC in fMRI data obtained in the absence and presence of sevoflurane anesthesia (0%, 2%, and 1% end-tidal concentration, respectively) administered to healthy volunteers. ILC was determined specifically in regions of the default mode network (DMN) to address local changes in each state. In addition, a potential confound in analyses based on correlations due to signal-to-noise variations was addressed by wavelet denoising. This accommodated decreases in signal power commonly seen during anesthesia without artificially reducing derived correlations. Results showed that ILC was significantly reduced in the entire DMN during 2% sevoflurane yet recovered in the posterior and anterior cingulate cortices as well as inferior parietal cortex during 1% sevoflurane. By contrast, ILC remained attenuated prefrontally in the 1% condition, which indicates uncoupling of the frontal areas of DMN during light anesthesia. These results confirm widespread anesthetic-induced cortical suppression but also demonstrate that the local connectivity of the prefrontal cortex is rapidly reduced by sevoflurane. It remains to be seen whether these alterations arise locally as a direct consequence of anesthetic action on local neurons or are driven by distant changes in oscillations and activity elsewhere in the brain.
Dataset: Kuhlmann-2013-PLoS One
Article: Breakdown of within- and between-network resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity during propofol-induced loss of consciousness.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness remain poorly understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows investigating whole-brain connectivity changes during pharmacological modulation of the level of consciousness. Low-frequency spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations were measured in 19 healthy volunteers during wakefulness, mild sedation, deep sedation with clinical unconsciousness, and subsequent recovery of consciousness. Propofol-induced decrease in consciousness linearly correlates with decreased corticocortical and thalamocortical connectivity in frontoparietal networks (i.e., default- and executive-control networks). Furthermore, during propofol-induced unconsciousness, a negative correlation was identified between thalamic and cortical activity in these networks. Finally, negative correlations between default network and lateral frontoparietal cortices activity, present during wakefulness, decreased proportionally to propofol-induced loss of consciousness. In contrast, connectivity was globally preserved in low-level sensory cortices, (i.e., in auditory and visual networks across sedation stages). This was paired with preserved thalamocortical connectivity in these networks. Rather, waning of consciousness was associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between visual and auditory networks. Our results shed light on the functional significance of spontaneous brain activity fluctuations observed in functional magnetic resonance imaging. They suggest that propofol-induced unconsciousness could be linked to a breakdown of cerebral temporal architecture that modifies both within- and between-network connectivity and thus prevents communication between low-level sensory and higher-order frontoparietal cortices, thought to be necessary for perception of external stimuli. They emphasize the importance of thalamocortical connectivity in higher-order cognitive brain networks in the genesis of conscious perception.Anesthesiology 09/2010; 113(5):1038-53. · 5.36 Impact Factor