Lactation performance and amino acid utilization of cows fed increasing amounts of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles.

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.
Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.57). 01/2010; 93(1):288-303. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2009-2377
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of a solvent-extraction process that removes corn oil from distillers grains produces a reduced-fat co-product (RFDG). To determine the optimal concentration of RFDG in mid-lactation diets, 22 multiparous and 19 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design for 8 wk, including a 2-wk covariate period. The RFDG was included at 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the diet on a dry matter basis, replacing soybean feedstuffs. Increasing RFDG in diets had no effect on dry matter intake (23.1 kg/d) or milk production (35.0 kg/d). Milk fat percentage increased linearly from 3.18 to 3.72% as RFDG increased from 0 to 30% of the diet. Similarly, milk fat yield tended to increase linearly from 1.08 to 1.32 kg/d. Milk protein percentage (2.99, 3.06, 3.13, and 2.99% for diets with RFDG from 0 to 30%) responded quadratically, whereas protein yield was not affected by treatment. Milk urea N decreased linearly from 15.8 to 13.1mg/dL. The efficiency of N utilization for milk production was not affected by including RFDG (26.1%), whereas the efficiency of milk production (energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake) tended to increase linearly with increasing RFDG in the diet. Similarly, concentrations of plasma glucose increased linearly. Arterial Lys decreased linearly from 66.0 to 44.8 microM/L, whereas arterial Met increased linearly from 16.5 to 29.3 microM/L. Arteriovenous difference of Lys decreased linearly from 42.6 to 32.5 microM/L, whereas that of Met was unaffected. The extraction of Lys by the mammary gland increased linearly from 64.3 to 72.2%, whereas that of Met decreased linearly from 71.6 to 42.7%. Feeding up to 30% of RFDG in a mid-lactation diet supported lactation performance similarly to cows fed the soybean protein-based diet (0% RFDG).

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    ABSTRACT: Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 2 experiments to evaluate the effects of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDG) on milk production, rumen fermentation, intestinal microbial N flow, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. In experiment 1, RFDG was fed at 0, 10, 20, or 30% of diet dry matter (DM) to 12 noncannulated Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation: 89 ± 11 d in milk and 674 ± 68.2 kg of body weight) to determine effects on milk production. In experiment 2, the same diets were fed to 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 41 d in milk; 590 ± 61.14 kg of body weight) to evaluate the effects on rumen fermentation, intestinal flow of microbial N, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. In both experiments, cows were randomly assigned to 4 × 4 Latin squares over 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were (1) control (0% RFDG), (2) 10% RFDG, (3) 20% RFDG, and (4) 30% RFDG. Feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In both experiments, milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of milk components. In experiment 2, ruminal pH was measured; samples of rumen fluid, duodenal digesta, and feces were collected on d 18 to 21. Microbial N was estimated by using purines and DNA as microbial markers. Milk yield was not affected by treatment and averaged 34.0 ± 1.29 kg/d and 31.4 ± 2.81 kg/d in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Percentage of milk protein tended to increase in experiment 1; estimates were 3.08, 3.18, 3.15, and 3.19 ± 0.06% when RFDG increased from 0 to 30% in the diets. However, milk protein concentration was not affected in experiment 2 and averaged 3.02 ± 0.07%. Percentage of milk fat was not affected and averaged 3.66 ± 0.05% and 3.25 ± 0.14% in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Total ruminal volatile fatty acids and ammonia concentrations were not affected by treatment and averaged 135.18 ± 6.45 mM and 18.66 ± 2.32 mg/dL, respectively. Intestinal microbial N flow was not affected by treatment; however, purines yielded higher estimates of flow compared with DNA markers. When averaged across treatments, intestinal flow of microbial N was 303 and 218 ± 18 g of N/d, using purines and DNA as the markers. Dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and nonfiber carbohydrate digestibility tended to increase with increasing inclusion of RFDG. Results from these experiments indicate that dairy rations can be formulated to include up to 30% RFDG while maintaining lactation performance, volatile fatty acids concentration, and intestinal supply of microbial N.
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