Lactation performance and amino acid utilization of cows fed increasing amounts of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.
Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.57). 01/2010; 93(1):288-303. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2009-2377
Source: PubMed


The use of a solvent-extraction process that removes corn oil from distillers grains produces a reduced-fat co-product (RFDG). To determine the optimal concentration of RFDG in mid-lactation diets, 22 multiparous and 19 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design for 8 wk, including a 2-wk covariate period. The RFDG was included at 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the diet on a dry matter basis, replacing soybean feedstuffs. Increasing RFDG in diets had no effect on dry matter intake (23.1 kg/d) or milk production (35.0 kg/d). Milk fat percentage increased linearly from 3.18 to 3.72% as RFDG increased from 0 to 30% of the diet. Similarly, milk fat yield tended to increase linearly from 1.08 to 1.32 kg/d. Milk protein percentage (2.99, 3.06, 3.13, and 2.99% for diets with RFDG from 0 to 30%) responded quadratically, whereas protein yield was not affected by treatment. Milk urea N decreased linearly from 15.8 to 13.1mg/dL. The efficiency of N utilization for milk production was not affected by including RFDG (26.1%), whereas the efficiency of milk production (energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake) tended to increase linearly with increasing RFDG in the diet. Similarly, concentrations of plasma glucose increased linearly. Arterial Lys decreased linearly from 66.0 to 44.8 microM/L, whereas arterial Met increased linearly from 16.5 to 29.3 microM/L. Arteriovenous difference of Lys decreased linearly from 42.6 to 32.5 microM/L, whereas that of Met was unaffected. The extraction of Lys by the mammary gland increased linearly from 64.3 to 72.2%, whereas that of Met decreased linearly from 71.6 to 42.7%. Feeding up to 30% of RFDG in a mid-lactation diet supported lactation performance similarly to cows fed the soybean protein-based diet (0% RFDG).

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Available from: Kamal Mjoun, Aug 15, 2014
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    • "Dairy cattle are expected to be a primary target for increased rates of DDGS inclusion in the diet; dairy cattle require a high amount of protein, which is largely provided by soybean meal at present, and can also handle the fiber load. DDGS can be used in diets for dairy cows by at least up to 20% and often up to 30% on a dry matter basis without changing animal performance [60,61]. Furthermore, use of DDGS for dairy favors the lower fat content of DDGS from dry grind ethanol plants that skim oil (Table  4); thus, oil skimming may promote a higher rate of inclusion of DDGS in diets fed to dairy cows [61]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed, economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Although 40.5 % of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25 % of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11 % to 19 % depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles substitutes at a higher rate for soybean meal, oil replacement requirements intensify and positively feedback to elevate estimates of land usage. Accounting for anticipated technological changes in the corn ethanol system is important for understanding the associated land base ascribed, and may aid in calibrating parameters for land use models in biofuel life-cycle analyses.
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 04/2014; 7(1):61. DOI:10.1186/1754-6834-7-61 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    • "ion when feeding isonitrogenous diets containing HPDDG or regular dried DGS as the protein supplement . In addition , Christen et al . ( 2009 ) indicated that feeding HPDDG was as effective as soybean meal , canola meal , and dried DGS as a protein supplement for lactating cows . Like regular DGS , the protein in HPDDG is most limiting in lysine . Mjoun et al . ( 2010 ) concluded that dDGS is also a good feed protein for lactating cows based on an experi - ment in which cows were fed 0 , 10 , 20 , and 30% of diet DM as dDGS in place of soy - based products . Milk pro - duction ( 34 . 9 kg / d ) was similar for all diets . Likewise , milk composition was not adversely affected by diet , and milk fat c"
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    ABSTRACT: Distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the major coproduct of ethanol production, usually made from corn, which is fed to dairy cattle. It is a good protein (crude protein, CP) source (>30% CP) high in ruminally undegradable protein (approximately 55% of CP) and is a good energy source (net energy for lactation of approximately 2.25 Mcal/kg of dry matter). The intermediate fat concentration (10% of dry matter) and readily digestible fiber (approximately 39% neutral detergent fiber) contribute to the high energy content in DGS. Performance was usually similar when animals were fed wet or dried products, although some research results tended to favor the wet products. Diets can contain DGS as partial replacement for both concentrates and forages, but DGS usually replaces concentrates. Adequate effective fiber was needed to avoid milk fat depression when DGS replaced forages in lactating cow diets. Nutritionally balanced diets can be formulated that contain 20% or more of the diet dry matter as DGS. Such diets supported similar or higher milk production compared with when cows were fed traditional feeds. Although DGS can constitute more than 30% of diet dry matter, gut fill may limit dry matter intake and production in diets with more than 20% wet DGS and that also contain other moist feeds. The fiber in DGS, which often replaces high-starch feeds, does not eliminate acidosis but minimizes its problems. Distillers solubles, which are often blended with distillers grains to provide DGS, can be fed separately as condensed corn distillers solubles. Other distillers coproducts besides DGS such as high-protein distillers grains, corn germ, corn bran, and low-fat distillers grains are becoming available.
    Journal of Dairy Science 12/2009; 92(12):5802-13. DOI:10.3168/jds.2009-2549 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate lactation response and AA utilization of early lactation cows fed 2 types of dried distillers grains with solubles (DG): regular (DDGS) or reduced-fat (RFDGS). Thirty-six Holstein cows 19.7+/-2.6 d in milk at the start of the experiment were used in a randomized complete block design for 14 wk including a 2-wk covariate period. Treatments consisted of the following diets: 1) control (CON) diet containing 0% DG; 2) diet containing 22% DDGS; and 3) diet containing 20% RFDGS. Distillers grains replaced soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and soyhulls from the CON diet. Diets were formulated to be similar in crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and net energy for lactation concentrations. Dry matter intake (24.7 kg/d) and milk yield (39.3 kg/d) were similar for all diets. Milk fat and lactose percentages were unaffected by diets; however, protein percentage was greater for cows fed the DG diets compared with the CON diet. Consequently, milk protein yield was also greater for the DG diets compared with CON. Milk urea nitrogen decreased for cows fed DG diets and averaged 11.8, 10.9, and 10.1 mg/dL, respectively, for CON, DDGS, and RFDGS. Feed efficiency tended to be greater and N efficiency was greater for cows fed DG compared with CON. Body weight (711 kg), body weight change (+0.49 kg/d), and body condition score (3.36) were similar for all diets, but cows fed CON tended to gain more body condition (+0.14) than cows fed DG diets. Amino acid utilization was evaluated at the peak of milk production corresponding to wk 9 of lactation. Arterial Lys concentration was lower with DG diets (70.4, 58.6, and 55.8 microM/L). Cows fed DG had greater arterial Met concentration (21.3 microM) compared with CON (14.9 microM). Arterio-venous difference of Lys was similar across diets, whereas that of Met was greater for the DG diets compared with the CON diet (10.3 vs. 13.0 microM/L). Extraction efficiency of Lys by the mammary gland was greater for DG diets than for CON (76.1 vs. 65.4%). Mammary uptake of Lys (2.56 g/kg of milk) was similar for all diets, and the uptake of Met tended to increase in cows fed DG diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol were unaffected by treatment; however, cows fed DG diets had lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and tended to have lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows fed the CON diet. Despite the apparent deficiency of Lys, milk protein percentage was increased in cows fed DG diets.
    Journal of Dairy Science 07/2010; 93(7):3176-91. DOI:10.3168/jds.2009-2974 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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