Lactation performance and amino acid utilization of cows fed increasing amounts of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.
Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.55). 01/2010; 93(1):288-303. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2009-2377
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of a solvent-extraction process that removes corn oil from distillers grains produces a reduced-fat co-product (RFDG). To determine the optimal concentration of RFDG in mid-lactation diets, 22 multiparous and 19 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design for 8 wk, including a 2-wk covariate period. The RFDG was included at 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the diet on a dry matter basis, replacing soybean feedstuffs. Increasing RFDG in diets had no effect on dry matter intake (23.1 kg/d) or milk production (35.0 kg/d). Milk fat percentage increased linearly from 3.18 to 3.72% as RFDG increased from 0 to 30% of the diet. Similarly, milk fat yield tended to increase linearly from 1.08 to 1.32 kg/d. Milk protein percentage (2.99, 3.06, 3.13, and 2.99% for diets with RFDG from 0 to 30%) responded quadratically, whereas protein yield was not affected by treatment. Milk urea N decreased linearly from 15.8 to 13.1mg/dL. The efficiency of N utilization for milk production was not affected by including RFDG (26.1%), whereas the efficiency of milk production (energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake) tended to increase linearly with increasing RFDG in the diet. Similarly, concentrations of plasma glucose increased linearly. Arterial Lys decreased linearly from 66.0 to 44.8 microM/L, whereas arterial Met increased linearly from 16.5 to 29.3 microM/L. Arteriovenous difference of Lys decreased linearly from 42.6 to 32.5 microM/L, whereas that of Met was unaffected. The extraction of Lys by the mammary gland increased linearly from 64.3 to 72.2%, whereas that of Met decreased linearly from 71.6 to 42.7%. Feeding up to 30% of RFDG in a mid-lactation diet supported lactation performance similarly to cows fed the soybean protein-based diet (0% RFDG).

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    ABSTRACT: YILDIZ, E., N. TODOROV and K. NEDELKOV, 2015. Comparison of different dietary protein sources for dairy cows. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 21: 199-208 The aim of the experiment is to compare sunflower meal (SFM), as a protein source in rations of lactating dairy cows to rape seed meal, canola type (RSM), dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) from maize, and soybean meal (SBM). Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 51±19 days in milk at the start of the experiment and 603±48 kg body weight were randomly assigned in 4x4 Latin square design trials. Each period lasted 21 days. Weeks 1 and 2 were used for adjustment and week 3 for data collection. Diets for each period and treatment group consisted of 4.3 kg alfalfa hay and 22 kg maize silage (31% DM), and 12.2 kg compound feed. All ingredients were mixed and provided to the cows as total mixed rations (TMR). TMR contained 17.1% crude protein in dry matter, with 47 to 58% coming from 4 tested supplementary protein sources. During each period, the cows were offered 1 of 4 compound feeds containing: 1) 39% SFM, 2) 46.6% RSM, 3) 62% DDGS, and 4) 32% SBM. By adding sunflower hulls to diets with SBM, RSM and DDGS, and maize germ as source of fat to those with SFM, RSM and SBM all rations were equalized by net energy concentration, crude fiber and fat in dry matter. Therefore, the different protein source was the only main difference between the 4 diets. Dry matter intake tended to increase for diets with DDGS and SBM as protein supplement. Milk production was significantly lower for cows receiving SFM with diet (30.1 kg/day), compared to diets with SBM (33.2 kg/day) (P<0.05) and tended to be lower than in cows fed rations with RSM and DDGS. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between SBM, RSM and DDGS as a protein sources. Milk protein yield per day was 1.08, 1.05, 1.04 and 0.96 for cows receiving diets with SBM, RSM, DDGS and SFM respectively, and respective percentages of milk protein were 3.24, 3.22, 3.19 and 3.18 (P>0.05). Fractions of true protein, casein and whey protein from total protein did not differ significantly. There was a tendency for lower true protein and casein content in milk of cows receiving diet with SFM. Non-protein nitrogen in milk from SFM diet was significantly higher, than in other diets. There were no significant differences in yield of fat, and milk fat percentage in cows receiving diets with 4 different protein feeds. Production of energy corrected milk from intake of one kilogram dry matter was the lowest in cows fed SFM diet (1.54 kg) (P<0.05), followed by DDGS (1.63 kg), RSM diets (1.67 kg), and SBM (1.69 kg). Less true protein in milk (P<0.05) was produced from 1 kg crude protein in ration with SFM compared to other rations. However, utilization of protein digestible in intestine for milk true protein production did not differ significantly between the four rations. Milk produced from cows fed ration with SBM had a farm gate price which was by 15 to 23% higher than those of milk produced by the other three rations. The cheapest milk was from the DDGS diet, followed by RSM and SFM
    Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 03/2015; 21(1):199-208. · 0.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different amounts of low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without supplementation of rumen-protected Lys (RPL) on lactation responses and AA utilization. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 188 ± 13 DIM were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) 15% low-fat DDGS, (2) 15% low-fat DDGS plus RPL, (3) 30% low-fat DDGS, and (4) 30% low-fat DDGS plus RPL. Periods lasted 21 d, with the last 3 d for data collection. Basal diets (without RPL) were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model [Cornell University (Ithaca, NY), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and the W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute (Chazy, NY)] to be isonitrogenous (16.9% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.63 Mcal/kg) and inclusion of low-fat DDGS increased at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Inclusion rate of low-fat DDGS and RPL supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake and milk yield, averaging 25.3 ± 0.97 kg/d and 26.9 ± 1.94 kg/d, respectively (means ± standard error of the means). Milk fat and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatments but milk protein concentration decreased in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS compared with those fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS (3.49 vs. 3.40 ± 0.12%). Updated predictions from the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model showed a decrease of 25 g of metabolizable protein Lys in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS. Compared with cows fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS, cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS had a marked increase in extraction efficiency (49.4 vs. 61.4 ± 2.51%) and a tendency to increase milk protein concentration (3.41 vs. 3.48 ± 0.12%) with RPL supplementation, which supported that Lys supply was inadequate. Despite differences observed in milk protein concentration, milk protein yield was similar across treatments and averaged 0.92 ± 0.06 kg/d. Lack of response on arterial Lys concentration with RPL supplementation leads us to suspect that the RPL product delivered a lower amount of metabolizable Lys than expected. Based on extraction efficiencies, Lys, Arg, and Phe were the first 3 limiting AA across treatments. Supplementation of rumen-protected AA has the potential to be an effective nutritional strategy to supply limiting AA; however, accurate information on the bioavailability of the AA is needed.
    Journal of Dairy Science 10/2014; 97(10). DOI:10.3168/jds.2014-8315 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed, economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Although 40.5 % of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25 % of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11 % to 19 % depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles substitutes at a higher rate for soybean meal, oil replacement requirements intensify and positively feedback to elevate estimates of land usage. Accounting for anticipated technological changes in the corn ethanol system is important for understanding the associated land base ascribed, and may aid in calibrating parameters for land use models in biofuel life-cycle analyses.
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 04/2014; 7(1):61. DOI:10.1186/1754-6834-7-61 · 6.22 Impact Factor

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