Two Rubisco activase isoforms may play different roles in photosynthetic heat acclimation in the rice plant.
ABSTRACT Studies on some plant species have shown that increasing the growth temperature gradually or pretreating with high temperature can lead to obvious photosynthetic acclimation to high temperature. To test whether this acclimation arises from heat adaptation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 220.127.116.11) activation mediated by Rubisco activase (RCA), gene expression of RCA large isoform (RCA(L)) and RCA small isoform (RCA(S)) in rice was determined using a 4-day heat stress treatment [40/30 degrees C (day/night)] followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions [30/22 degrees C (day/night)]. The heat stress significantly induced the expression of RCA(L) as determined by both mRNA and protein levels. Correlative analysis indicated that RCA(S) protein content was extremely significantly related to Rubisco initial activity and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under both heat stress and normal conditions. Immunoblot analysis of the Rubisco-RCA complex revealed that the ratio of RCA(L) to Rubisco increased markedly in heat-acclimated rice leaves. Furthermore, transgenic rice plants expressing enhanced amounts of RCA(L) exhibited higher thermotolerance in Pn and Rubisco initial activity and grew better at high temperature than wild-type (WT) plants and transgenic rice plants expressing enhanced amounts of RCA(S). Under normal conditions, the transgenic rice plants expressing enhanced amounts of RCA(S) showed higher Pn and produced more biomass than transgenic rice plants expressing enhanced amounts of RCA(L) and wild-type plants. Together, these suggest that the heat-induced RCA(L) may play an important role in photosynthetic acclimation to moderate heat stress in vivo, while RCA(S) plays a major role in maintaining Rubisco initial activity under normal conditions.
- SourceAvailable from: Michael E Salvucci[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that light activation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is inhibited by moderately elevated temperature through an effect on Rubisco activase. When cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf tissue was exposed to increasing temperatures in the light, activation of Rubisco was inhibited above 35 and 30 degreesC, respectively, and the relative inhibition was greater for wheat than for cotton. The temperature-induced inhibition of Rubisco activation was fully reversible at temperatures below 40 degreesC. In contrast to activation state, total Rubisco activity was not affected by temperatures as high as 45 degreesC. Nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching increased at temperatures that inhibited Rubisco activation, consistent with inhibition of Calvin cycle activity. Initial and maximal chlorophyll fluorescence were not significantly altered until temperatures exceeded 40 degreesC. Thus, electron transport, as measured by Chl fluorescence, appeared to be more stable to moderately elevated temperatures than Rubisco activation. Western-blot analysis revealed the formation of high-molecular-weight aggregates of activase at temperatures above 40 degreesC for both wheat and cotton when inhibition of Rubisco activation was irreversible. Physical perturbation of other soluble stromal enzymes, including Rubisco, phosphoribulokinase, and glutamine synthetase, was not detected at the elevated temperatures. Our evidence indicates that moderately elevated temperatures inhibit light activation of Rubisco via a direct effect on Rubisco activase.Plant physiology 03/1998; 116(2):539-46. · 6.56 Impact Factor
- Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 01/1989; 268(1):93-99.
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ABSTRACT: Plant photosynthesis declines when the temperature exceeds its optimum range. Recent evidence indicates that the reduction in photosynthesis is linked to ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) deactivation due to the inhibition of Rubisco activase (RCA) under moderately elevated temperatures. To test the hypothesis that thermostable RCA can improve photosynthesis under elevated temperatures, we used gene shuffling technology to generate several Arabidopsis thaliana RCA1 (short isoform) variants exhibiting improved thermostability. Wild-type RCA1 and selected thermostable RCA1 variants were introduced into an Arabidopsis RCA deletion (Deltarca) line. In a long-term growth test at either constant 26 degrees C or daily 4-h 30 degrees C exposure, the transgenic lines with the thermostable RCA1 variants exhibited higher photosynthetic rates, improved development patterns, higher biomass, and increased seed yields compared with the lines expressing wild-type RCA1 and a slight improvement compared with untransformed Arabidopsis plants. These results provide clear evidence that RCA is a major limiting factor in plant photosynthesis under moderately elevated temperatures and a potential target for genetic manipulation to improve crop plants productivity under heat stress conditions.The Plant Cell 11/2007; 19(10):3230-41. · 9.25 Impact Factor