Two Rubisco activase isoforms may play different roles in photosynthetic heat acclimation in the rice plant.
ABSTRACT Studies on some plant species have shown that increasing the growth temperature gradually or pretreating with high temperature can lead to obvious photosynthetic acclimation to high temperature. To test whether this acclimation arises from heat adaptation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 18.104.22.168) activation mediated by Rubisco activase (RCA), gene expression of RCA large isoform (RCA(L)) and RCA small isoform (RCA(S)) in rice was determined using a 4-day heat stress treatment [40/30 degrees C (day/night)] followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions [30/22 degrees C (day/night)]. The heat stress significantly induced the expression of RCA(L) as determined by both mRNA and protein levels. Correlative analysis indicated that RCA(S) protein content was extremely significantly related to Rubisco initial activity and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under both heat stress and normal conditions. Immunoblot analysis of the Rubisco-RCA complex revealed that the ratio of RCA(L) to Rubisco increased markedly in heat-acclimated rice leaves. Furthermore, transgenic rice plants expressing enhanced amounts of RCA(L) exhibited higher thermotolerance in Pn and Rubisco initial activity and grew better at high temperature than wild-type (WT) plants and transgenic rice plants expressing enhanced amounts of RCA(S). Under normal conditions, the transgenic rice plants expressing enhanced amounts of RCA(S) showed higher Pn and produced more biomass than transgenic rice plants expressing enhanced amounts of RCA(L) and wild-type plants. Together, these suggest that the heat-induced RCA(L) may play an important role in photosynthetic acclimation to moderate heat stress in vivo, while RCA(S) plays a major role in maintaining Rubisco initial activity under normal conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Inhibition of photosynthesis by heat stress is accompanied by functional impairment of Rubisco's chaperone, activase (RCA), resulting in deactivation of Rubisco. Since activase is extremely sensitive to thermal denaturation, changes in expression of RCA at the transcript or protein level could provide a mechanism for acclimation of photosynthesis to prolonged heat stress. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show steady-state RCA transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana are stabilized during prolonged exposure to moderate heat (35 °C). A survey of RCA transcripts indicates heat stress did not alter the relative abundance of transcripts encoding α and β-isoforms of activase that are produced by alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. Instead, mRNA stabilization in heat-stressed plants coincided with a significant reduction in the average length of activase 3'-untranslated regions, and was associated with enrichment of an uncharacterized activase mRNA splice variant, AtRCAβ2. Transcript-specific qPCR revealed AtRCAβ2 mRNA was more stable than AtRCAα and AtRCAβ mRNA in heat-stressed plants. Using an inducible transgenic system, we found that RCA transcripts lacking their native 3'-untranslated region were significantly more stable than their full-length counterparts in vivo. Using this system, stability of the RCA protein was examined over 24 h in vivo, in the absence of RCA transcription. At both optimal and elevated temperatures, RCA protein levels remained stable in plants lacking RCA mRNA, but increased when RCA mRNA was present, particularly in heat-stressed plants. This study reveals a possible mechanism, involving post-transcriptional regulation of an important photosynthesis regulatory gene, for acclimation of photosynthesis to heat stress.Planta 03/2012; 236(2):463-76. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The main objective of the present review is to provide a compilation of published data of the effects of several climatic conditions on Rubisco, particularly its activity, state of activation, and concentration, and its influence on leaf gas exchange and photosynthesis. The environmental conditions analyzed include drought, salinity, heavy metals, growth temperature, and elevated [O3], [CO2], and ultraviolet-B irradiance. The results show conclusive evidence for a major negative effect on activity of Rubisco with increasing intensity of a range of abiotic stress factors. This decrease in the activity of Rubisco is associated with down-regulation of the activation state of the enzyme (e.g., by de-carbamylation and/or binding of inhibitory sugar phosphates) in response to drought or high temperature. On the contrary, the negative effects of low temperature, heavy metal stress (cadmium), ozone, and UV-B stress on Rubisco activity are associated with changes in the concentration of Rubisco. Notably, in response to all environmental factors, the regulation of in vivo CO2 assimilation rate was related to Rubisco in vitro parameters, either concentration and/or carboxylation, depending on the particular stress. The importance of the loss of Rubisco activity and its repercussion on plant photosynthesis are discussed in the context of climate change. It is suggested that decreased Rubisco activity will be a major effect induced by climate change, which will need to be considered in any prediction model on plant productivity in the near future.Photosynthesis Research 06/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing, which generates multiple transcripts from the same gene and potentially different protein isoforms, is a key posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism for expanding proteomic diversity and functional complexity in higher eukaryotes. The most recent estimates, based on whole transcriptome sequencing, indicate that about 95 % of human and 60 % of Arabidopsis multi-exon genes undergo alternative splicing, suggesting important roles for this mechanism in biological processes. However, while the misregulation of alternative splicing has been associated with many human diseases, its biological relevance in plant systems is just beginning to unfold. We review here the few plant genes for which the production of multiple splice isoforms has been reported to have a clear in vivo functional impact. These case studies implicate alternative splicing in the control of a wide range of physiological and developmental processes, including photosynthetic and starch metabolism, hormone signaling, seed germination, root growth and flowering, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Future functional characterization of alternative splicing events and identification of the transcripts targeted by major regulators of this versatile means of modulating gene expression should uncover the breadth of its physiological significance in higher plants.Protoplasma 09/2012; · 2.86 Impact Factor