Antipsychotic prescribing trends: a review of pharmaco-epidemiological studies
ABSTRACT To review findings from pharmaco-epidemiological studies exploring antipsychotic (AP) drugs prescribing trends.
We retrieved original studies that explored AP prescribing trends in general population samples since 2000. For each study, we extracted information on sampling method, period, assessment of AP use and corresponding estimates (incidence rates, prevalence rates, pharmacy sales, prescription data) and diagnostic assessment.
Nearly all studies meeting the inclusion criteria (n = 17) showed an increase in AP prescriptions, mainly because of a dramatic rise in second-generation antipsychotics (SGAP) prescriptions. APs are often prescribed for non-psychotic disorders in adults as well as in children and adolescents.
Considering the growing number of persons from the general population exposed to APs, population studies assessing the risk/benefit ratio of SGAP use in disorders other than psychosis are necessary, particularly in children and adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about consumer information needs regarding antipsychotic medicines. Medicines call centre (MCC)-derived data are underutilised; and could provide insight into issues of importance to consumers. This study aimed to explore consumers' information needs about antipsychotic medication sought from a national MCC in Australia. Questions received by the National Prescribing Service Medicines Line relating to antipsychotic medication from September 2002 to June 2010 were examined by antipsychotic subclass and in relation to other medication queries. We identified 6,295 calls related to antipsychotic medication. While female callers predominated, the percentage of males with antipsychotic questions was statistically significantly higher than for other medication calls (33.9 vs 22.6 %; p < 0.001). There were distinct gender differences in medicines information seeking across age ranges. Younger men asked about second-generation antipsychotics, shifting toward first-generation antipsychotics after 45 years of age. Female interest in both subclasses was comparable, irrespective of age. Most callers asking about antipsychotics sought information for themselves (69.4 %). Callers were primarily concerned about safety (57.0 %), especially adverse drug reactions (28.8 %), and were more often prompted by a worrying symptom (23.8 %) compared with the rest of calls (17.2 %). Trends of antipsychotic questions received corresponded with antipsychotic prescription data. The number of calls received by this MCC over time reveals an ongoing consumer need for additional, targeted information about antipsychotics. Noticeable was the relatively high frequency of young male callers asking about antipsychotics, indicating that call centres could be a way to reach these traditionally poor users of health services.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00127-014-1005-y · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare, severe, idiosyncratic adverse reaction to antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were originally assumed to be free from the risk of causing NMS, however several cases of NMS induced by SGAs (SGA-NMS) have been reported. The aim of this study was to systematically review available studies and case reports on SGA-NMS and compare the presentation of NMS induced by different SGAs. Citations were retrieved from PubMed up to November 2013, and from reference lists of relevant citations. Eligibility criteria included (a) primary studies reporting data on NMS, with at least 50 % of the sample receiving SGAs; or (b) case reports and case reviews reporting on NMS induced by SGA monotherapy, excluding those due to antipsychotic withdrawal. A standardized method for data extraction and coding was developed for the analysis of eligible case reports. Six primary studies and 186 individual cases of NMS induced by SGAs were included. Primary studies suggest that SGA-NMS is characterized by lower incidence, lower clinical severity, and less frequent lethal outcome than NMS induced by first-generation antipsychotics. Systematic analysis of case reports suggests that even the most recently marketed antipsychotics are not free from the risk of inducing NMS. Furthermore, clozapine-, aripiprazole- and amisulpride-induced NMS can present with atypical features more frequently than other SGA-NMS, i.e. displaying less intense extrapyramidal symptoms or high fever. Case reports report non-systematic data, therefore analyses may be subject to bias. Clinicians should be aware that NMS is virtually associated with all antipsychotics, including those most recently marketed. Although apparently less severe than NMS induced by older antipsychotics, SGA-NMS still represent a relevant clinical issue.Drugs in R & D 01/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1007/s40268-014-0078-0 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent chronic psychiatric illness associated with significant morbidity, mortality, loss of productivity, and diminished quality of life. Typically, only a minority of patients responds to treatment and meet criteria for remission as residual symptoms may persist, the result of an inadequate course of treatment and/or the presence of persistent side effects. The foremost goal of treatment should be to restore patients to full functioning and eliminate or relieve all MDD symptoms, while being virtually free of troublesome side effects. The current available pharmacological options to manage persistent depressive symptoms include augmentation or adjunctive combination strategies, both of which target selected psychobiological systems and specific mood and somatic symptoms experienced by the patient. As well, non-pharmacological interventions including psychotherapies may be used in either first-line or adjunctive approaches. However, the evidence to date with respect to available adjunct therapies is limited by few studies and those published have utilized only a small number of subjects and lack enough data to allow for a consensus of expert opinion. This underlines the need for further longer term, large population-based studies and those that include comorbid populations, all of which are seen in real world community psychiatry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 12/2014; 220S1:S15-S33. DOI:10.1016/S0165-1781(14)70003-4 · 2.68 Impact Factor