Systematic review: the effects of carbonated beverages on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
ABSTRACT Carbonated beverages have unique properties that may potentially exacerbate gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), such as high acidity and carbonation. Cessation of carbonated beverage consumption is commonly recommended as part of lifestyle modifications for patients with GERD.
To evaluate the relationship of carbonated beverages with oesophageal pH, oesophageal motility, oesophageal damage, GERD symptoms and GERD complications.
A systematic review.
Carbonated beverage consumption results in a very short decline in intra-oesophageal pH. In addition, carbonated beverages may lead to a transient reduction in lower oesophageal sphincter basal pressure. There is no evidence that carbonated beverages directly cause oesophageal damage. Carbonated beverages have not been consistently shown to cause GERD-related symptoms. Furthermore, there is no evidence that these popular drinks lead to GERD complications or oesophageal cancer.
Based on the currently available literature, it appears that there is no direct evidence that carbonated beverages promote or exacerbate GERD.
Article: The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p < 0.05), but at MS, it was no different either during the SM or the LM. Total kcal intake did not differ at MS after any of the beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (13.8 ± 3.3 ng/ml/min) during SM following B-CO2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1). No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.Nutrition Journal 01/2011; 10:114. · 2.48 Impact Factor