New bifunctional derivatives of diacetyl-bis(4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (H(2)atsm) have been prepared by a selective transamination reaction of a new dissymmetric bis(thiosemicarbazone) precursor H(2)L(1). The new derivatives contain an aliphatic carboxylic acid (H(2)L(2) and H(2)L(3)), t-butyl carbamate (H(2)L(4)), or ammonium ion (H(2)L(5)) functional group. The new ligands and copper(II) complexes have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and microanalysis. The complex Cu(II)(L(4)) was structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and shows the metal center to be in an N(2)S(2) distorted square planar coordination geometry. Electrochemical measurements show that the copper(II) complexes undergo a reversible reduction attributable to a Cu(II)/Cu(I) process. The ligands and the copper(II) complexes featuring a carboxylic acid functional group have been conjugated to the tumor targeting peptide bombesin(7-14)-NH(2). The bifunctional peptide conjugates were radiolabeled with copper-64 in the interest of developing new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents. The conjugates were radiolabeled with copper-64 rapidly in high radiochemical purity (>95%) at room temperature under mild conditions and were stable in a cysteine and histidine challenge study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This tutorial review will highlight recent advances in medicinal inorganic chemistry pertaining to the use of multifunctional ligands for enhanced effect. Ligands that adequately bind metal ions and also include specific targeting features are gaining in popularity due to their ability to enhance the efficacy of less complicated metal-based agents. Moving beyond the traditional view of ligands modifying reactivity, stabilizing specific oxidation states, and contributing to substitution inertness, we will discuss recent work involving metal complexes with multifunctional ligands that target specific tissues, membrane receptors, or endogenous molecules, including enzymes.
Chemical Society Reviews 07/2006; 35(6):534-44. DOI:10.1039/b514859f · 33.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first member of a water-soluble family of bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligands is reported. It forms a 1:1 complex with Zn(II) that absorbs intensely in the visible region (lambda(max) = 414 nm; epsilon = 1.8(4) x 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1); pH 7.3). Its affinity for Zn(II) (K(D) = 5.9(3) x 10(-9) M at pH 7.3) was determined by competition with ligand ethylene glycol O,O'-bis(2-aminoethyl)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. Its potential application as a chromophoric probe was demonstrated by estimation of the Zn(II) binding affinities of the soluble metal-binding domains of two plant metal-transporting proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The novel chelators 2-acetylpyridine-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (HAp44mT) and di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (HDp44mT) have been examined to elucidate the structure-activity relationships necessary to form copper (Cu) complexes with pronounced antitumor activity. Electrochemical studies demonstrated that the Cu complexes of these ligands had lower redox potentials than their iron complexes. Moreover, the Cu complexes where the ligand/metal ratio was 1:1 rather than 2:1 had significantly higher intracellular oxidative properties and antitumor efficacy. Interestingly, the 2:1 complex was shown to dissociate to give significant amounts of the 1:1 complex that could be the major cytotoxic effector. Both types of Cu complex showed significantly more antiproliferative activity than the ligand alone. We also demonstrate the importance of the inductive effects of substituents on the carbonyl group of the parent ketone, which influence the Cu(II/I) redox potentials because of their proximity to the metal center. The structure-activity relationships described are important for the design of potent thiosemicarbazone Cu complexes.
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