Plantas introducidas en el Parque Nacional Torres del Paine, Chile

Gayana - Botanica (Impact Factor: 0.46). 12/2006; DOI: 10.4067/S0717-66432006000200001
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Se presentan 61 nuevos registros de plantas introducidas para el Parque Nacional Torres del Paine (49°21’-51°08’S y 73°07’-74°52’O), región de Magallanes, con una superficie de 181.414 ha. Se encontraron 85 especies introducidas, pertenecientes a 21 familias y 65 géneros. Las familias mejor representadas en número de especies fueron Poaceae (22 spp.), Asteraceae (11 ssp.) y Caryophyllaceae (7 ssp.). Las hierbas perennes constituyen el 52% y las anuales el 34% de la flora. El 88% de ellas son de origen europeo y el 36% corresponde a especies invasoras.

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    ABSTRACT: Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is an aggressive invasive species posing threats to native ecosystems including increase in fire frequency, alteration of water and nutrient cycles and exclusion of native species. As such, it is important to monitor this species worldwide. However, outside the United States, it has been poorly studied. We studied this species at two scales: (i) at a local scale, evaluating the species presence and its determinants, along the ecotonal area between the steppe and the forest within north-western Patagonia, to reveal whether B. tectorum is actually invading nat-ural ecosystems in areas comparable with those invaded in USA, and (ii) at a regional scale, through a search of literature and herbaria databases on B. tecto-rum in South America, to determine the current known distribution of the species in this subcontinent. Results indicate that it is already invading north-western Pata-gonia in Argentina, mainly in the semi-arid part of the region, and that precipitation influences the invasion process. We found that for South America, B. tecto-rum has been only documented in southern Argentina and Chile. Given the similarities to other invaded regions, the possibility of invasion for Patagonia has been predicted but not prevented. It is important to study changes in the invasion level where it is already established, and to encourage managers with preven-tion and control strategies. Combining this informa-tion with lessons from places with extensive periods of invasion could help to initiate management of the spe-cies in areas where the invasion process is beginning and before the species spreads widely.
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the impact of a wildfire caused by a tourist at Torres del Paine Biosphere Reserve in 2005, which destroyed approximately 2,000 ha of forests. Changes on biodiversity attributes of Nothofagus pumilio stands including structure, floristic composition and regeneration, are shown. We compared three plot groups having similar site and structure: Cordón Masle burned plots (CMBP); Cordón Masle unburned plots (CMUP), adjacent to the first ones; and Cerro Paine unburned plots (CPUP), outside the fire perimeter. Data was analyzed using univariate (Mann-Whitney) and multivariate (MRPP and ISA) non-parametric analysis. In CMBP, the fire reduced in average 91.7 % of the tree density and 70.9 % of the basal area. In the unburned plots the average of seedling was 23,625 and 22,750 ha-1 in CPUP and CMUP respectively, whereas in burned ones it was only 1,125 ha-1 in CMBP. Canopy layer collapsed and species richness and cover on ground increased significantly in burned plots. The average of exotics increased from 1.5 and 0.6 in CPUP and CMUP respectively to 11.9 in CMBP. Tree mortality, lower regeneration, biological invasion and broken canopy-ground balance in burned stands, are altering the successional pathways of forests, making difficult the forest regeneration and restoration efforts. Based on this information, we propose managers to encourage efforts in fire prevention and to incorporate a database on biodiversity indicators for management plans, in order to know more about the ecological integrity of ecosystems and the impacts provoked by recreation.
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