Genetic regulatory network analysis for app based on genetical genomics approach.
ABSTRACT A number of studies have shown that amyloid precursor protein (App) plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, little is known about the genetic regulatory network. In this study, the authors combined array analysis and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to characterize the genetic variation and genetic regulatory network for App using hippocampus of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice. The variation in expression level of App is conspicuous across the 78 BXD RI strains. Moreover, the expression level of App is significantly higher in DBA/2J than the level in C57BL/6J (p < .001). Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis has further confirmed the significant difference between the two parental strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. The authors performed an interval mapping for App gene expression and found that it is cis regulated with highly significant likelihood-ratio statistic (LRS) score (LRS = 19; p < .05). Four SNPs and two InDels (insertions or deletions) were identified in the promoter, and one of the SNPs is located in the pax2 motif. Genetic regulatory network analysis showed that App coregulated with many AD-related genes, including Gsk3b, Falz, Mef2a, Tlk2, Rtn, and Prkca. The genetical genomics approach demonstrates the importance and the potential power of the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies in identifying regulatory network that contribute to complex traits, such as AD.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain and is the commonest form of dementia. The prevalence of this disease is predicted to increase 3-fold over the next 30 years and to date no reliable and conclusive diagnostic test exists that will identify individuals presymptomatically of susceptibility risk. This review examines the molecular, genetic, dietary and environmental evidence underlying the known pathology of AD and proposes a biologically plausible chromosome instability model to explain some of the features of the disease. Genome damage biomarkers such as aneuploidy of chromosome 17 and 21, oxidative damage to DNA and telomere shortening together with abnormal expression of APP, beta amyloid and tau proteins are discussed in terms of their potential value as risk biomarkers. These biomarkers could then be used in diagnosis and the evaluation of potentially effective preventative measures.Mutagenesis 02/2007; 22(1):15-33. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Natural genetic variation can cause significant differences in gene expression, but little is known about the polymorphisms that affect gene regulation. We analyzed regulatory variation in a cross between laboratory and wild strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Clustering and linkage analysis defined groups of coregulated genes and the loci involved in their regulation. Most expression differences mapped to trans-acting loci. Positional cloning and functional assays showed that polymorphisms in GPA1 and AMN1 affect expression of genes involved in pheromone response and daughter cell separation, respectively. We also asked whether particular classes of genes were more likely to contain trans-regulatory polymorphisms. Notably, transcription factors showed no enrichment, and trans-regulatory variation seems to be broadly dispersed across classes of genes with different molecular functions.Nature Genetics 10/2003; 35(1):57-64. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring sequence variation that affects gene expression is an important source of phenotypic differences among individuals within a species. We and others have previously shown that such regulatory variation can occur both at the same locus as the gene whose expression it affects (local regulatory variation) and elsewhere in the genome at trans-acting factors. Here we present a detailed analysis of genome-wide local regulatory variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We used genetic linkage analysis to show that nearly a quarter of all yeast genes contain local regulatory variation between two divergent strains. We measured allele-specific expression in a diploid hybrid of the two strains for 77 genes showing strong self-linkage and found that in 52%-78% of these genes, local regulatory variation acts directly in cis. We also experimentally confirmed one example in which local regulatory variation in the gene AMN1 acts in trans through a feedback loop. Genome-wide sequence analysis revealed that genes subject to local regulatory variation show increased polymorphism in the promoter regions, and that some but not all of this increase is due to polymorphisms in predicted transcription factor binding sites. Increased polymorphism was also found in the 3' untranslated regions of these genes. These findings point to the importance of cis-acting variation, but also suggest that there is a diverse set of mechanisms through which local variation can affect gene expression levels.PLoS Genetics. 01/2005;