Chronic hepatitis C increased the mortality rates of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and diabetes mellitus in a triple hepatitis virus endemic community.
ABSTRACT To elucidate the factors associated with mortality rates among older subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a triple hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) endemic community.
A total of 2,909 residents aged>or=45 years were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in 1997. Anti-HDV was detected in HBsAg-positive subjects. Those who expired from HCC and DM were identified from official mortality data sets (1997-2003). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve with log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazard model.
Forty-one patients died of HCC and 25 of DM during the study period. Multivariate analysis indicated that age>or=65 years (hazard ratio 3.4; 95% confidence interval 1.8-6.4), HBsAg (3.3; 1.7-6.7), anti-HCV (3.8; 1.7-8.5) and ALT>or=40 IU/L (3.7; 1.9-7.0) were independent predictors of HCC mortality, while age>or=65 years (4.8; 2.1-11.0) and anti-HCV (4.2; 1.7-10.6) were two independent predictors of DM mortality. There were synergistic effects of dual viral infections for HCC, but not for DM mortality.
Old age and chronic HCV infection increase the risk of HCC and DM mortality. HBsAg and ALT levels are also risk factors for HCC mortality, but not DM. The synergistic effects of dual hepatitis viral infections are demonstrable and warrant further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) may be associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This was studied further in two parts. First, 1,151 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis and 181 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis, well matched for age, sex, and severity of cirrhosis, were reviewed retrospectively. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher in HCV-related cirrhosis (23.6%) than in HBV-related cirrhosis (9.4%; odds ratio [OR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-4.79; P =.0002). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was associated closely with the Child-Pugh score (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 2. 38-6.17; P <.0001) and increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P =.0117). Second, 235 patients with biopsy confirmed chronic HBV or HCV underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Only 1 of 70 patients with chronic viral hepatitis without cirrhosis was diabetic. However, 31 of 127 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis (24.4%) were diabetic compared with 3 of 38 patients with HBV-related cirrhosis (7.9%, P =.0477). The major variables associated with NIDDM were cirrhosis (OR, 14.39; 95% CI, 1.91-108; P =.0096) and male sex (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1. 32-16.18; P =.0161). Fasting insulin levels in 30 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus were elevated significantly, which was consistent with insulin resistance. However, acute insulin responsiveness was reduced in all patients with HCV infection and diabetes suggesting concomitant B-cell dysfunction. This study confirms an association between HCV and NIDDM.Hepatology 11/1999; 30(4):1059-63. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between viral infection pattern and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 292 chronic hepatitis patients, including 108 with developed HCC were screened using serological and molecular genetics methods. Viral etiology was established in 267 (91.4%), anti-HCV detected in 198 (67.8%), and HBsAg in 124 (42.5%) including 93 (74.4%) cases with HDV co-infection. HCV mono-infection predominated in both, "non-HCC" and "HCC" groups (54% and 39%, respectively) with higher frequency in the first group (P = 0.011), whereas HBV in co-infection with HDV was more frequent in HCC group (14% vs 25%, P = 0.017). Patients with HCV mono-infection were older than those with co-infection (P<0.02), had higher frequency of HCV-viraemia (82% vs 7%, P < 0.0001), and yet had significantly lower prevalence of HCC (29.6% vs. 49.1%, P = 0.003). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) were specifically elevated in 71% of HCC patients. In conclusion, although HCV monoinfection pattern predominates in Mongolia, co-infection with HBV and HDV had stronger association with HCC development at younger age. Liver tumor markers; AFP and PIVKA-II are useful tools for complex HCC-screening and clinical follow-up for chronic hepatitis patients in Mongolia.Journal of Medical Virology 12/2006; 78(12):1688-95. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The molecular epidemiological and clinical aspects of hepatitis D virus (HDV) in a unique HBV, HCV, and HDV triple virus endemic community in southern Taiwan were investigated. A total of 2,909 residents aged 45 or older were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV antibody, and anti-HDV antibody (specifically for HBsAg-positive carriers). Factors that might be associated with HDV infection, viral nucleic acid detection, and genotyping of HBV, HCV, and HDV were investigated. The prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV were 12.6% (366/2,909) and 41.6% (1,227/2,909), respectively. For HBsAg carriers, 15.3% (56/366) were positive for anti-HDV assay. Living in a higher endemic district of HCV infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-6.3), male gender (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1-3.6) and co-infection with HCV (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0-3.3) were significantly independent factors associated with HDV infection. The detection rate of HDV RNA among anti-HDV-positive patients was only 12.7% (7/55). The mean HBV titer of triple infection group was significantly lower than in the HBV/HDV co-infection group (2.23 vs 3.05 in log(10), copies/ml, P = 0.046). HCV RNA detection among the triple infection group showed 47.4% (9/19) viremia rate and viral loads of 579,121 IU/ml in median (16,803-1,551,190 IU/ml). The prevalent genotype of HBV was type B (23/25); HCV was 1b (7/9) and HDV was IIa/IIb (4/4). Only the presence of HCV RNA predicted the presence of elevated ALT significantly (OR = 25.0; 95% CI = 3.39-184.6). In conclusion, the geographical aggregation of HDV infection paralleled that of HCV infection in this community. HCV suppressed the replication of HBV among triple vital infection patients. HBV and HDV lapsed into a remission or nonreplicative phase in most cases, and HCV acted as a dominant factor in triple viral-infected individuals. Only the presence of HCV RNA was associated with elevated ALT values, but not HBV or HDV.Journal of Medical Virology 06/2003; 70(1):74-80. · 2.37 Impact Factor