Using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders
ABSTRACT This study investigated the childhood autism rating scale (CARS) as a tool for ASD diagnoses for 2-year-old (n = 376) and 4-year-old (n = 230) children referred for possible autism. The cut-off score to distinguish autistic disorder from PDD-NOS was 32 in the 2-year-old sample (consistent with Lord in J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discipl, 36, 1365-1382, 1995), and 30 in the 4-year-old sample, with good sensitivity and specificity at both ages. The cut-off score to distinguish ASD from non-ASD at both ages was 25.5, with good sensitivity and specificity. Results confirm the utility of the CARS in distinguishing autistic disorder from PDD-NOS, and distinguishing ASD from other developmental disorders and typical development and suggest that an ASD cutoff around 25, which is in common clinical use, is valid.
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ABSTRACT: In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with ASDs. A revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASDs was proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) that was released in May 2013. The autism spectrum describes a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in the fifth edition of the DSM. The new diagnostic criteria encompasses previous elements from the diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. An additional change to the DSM includes synthesizing the section on social and communication deficits into one domain. In ASD patients, the appropriate behavioral therapies and rehabilitation treatments significantly affect the prognosis. Therefore, this makes early diagnosis and treatment very important. In conclusion, pediatricians need to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs and be attentive to them in order to make an early diagnosis and provide treatment.Korean Journal of Pediatrics 01/2015; 58(1):8. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2015.58.1.8
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ABSTRACT: Neopterin, a pteridine mainly synthesized by activated macrophages, is a marker of inflammation, immune system activation and an active participant in Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of plasma neopterin levels in ASD. Eighty patients diagnosed with ASD and 80 sex and age matched typically developing children were assessed for plasma levels of neopterin at admission. Plasma neopterin levels were measured using a human ELISA kit and severity of ASD were evaluated with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score. We found that the mean plasma neopterin level was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in children with ASD as compared to controls. Plasma neopterin increased with increasing severity of ASD as defined by the CARS score. Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cutoff value of plasma neopterin level as an indicator for auxiliary diagnosis of ASD was projected to be 8.5nmol/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 84.2% and a specificity of 80.1%, with the area under the curve at 0.876 (95%CI, 0.825-0.928). Elevated neopterin (≥8.5nmol/l) was an independent diagnosis indicator of ASD with an adjusted OR of 12.11 (95% CI: 5.48-28.11; P<0.0001). These results indicated that autistic children had higher plasma levels of neopterin, and elevated plasma neopterin levels may be associated with severity of ASD among Chinese children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 02/2015; 41. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.02.002 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders that is among the most severe in terms of prevalence, morbidity and impact to the society. It is characterized by complex behavioral phenotype and deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact cause of ASD is still not known, the main findings emphasize the role of genetic and environmental factors in the development of autistic behavior. Environmental factors are also likely to interact with the genetic profile and cause aberrant changes in brain growth, neuronal development, and functional connectivity. The past few years have seen an increase in the prevalence of ASD, as a result of enhanced clinical tests and diagnostic tools. Despite growing evidence for the involvement of endogenous biomarkers in the pathophysiology of ASD, early detection of this disorder remains a big challenge. This paper describes the main behavioral and cognitive features of ASD, as well as the symptoms that differentiate autism from other developmental disorders. An attempt will be made to integrate all the available evidence which point to reduced brain connectivity, mirror neurons deficits, and inhibition-excitation imbalance in individuals with ASD. Finally, this review discusses the main factors involved in the pathophysiology of ASD, and illustrates some of the most important markers used for the diagnosis of this debilitating disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 04/2015; 43. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.04.003 · 2.92 Impact Factor