Using ecological momentary assessment to examine antecedents and correlates of physical activity bouts in adults age 50+ Years: A pilot study

Health Promotion Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.2). 12/2009; 38(3):249-55. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-009-9141-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT National recommendations supporting the promotion of multiple short (10+ minute) physical activity bouts each day to increase overall physical activity levels in middle-aged and older adults underscore the need to identify antecedents and correlates of such daily physical activity episodes.
This pilot study used Ecological Momentary Assessment to examine the time-lagged and concurrent effects of empirically supported social, cognitive, affective, and physiological factors on physical activity among adults age 50+ years.
Participants (N = 23) responded to diary prompts on a handheld computer four times per day across a 2-week period. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), self-efficacy, positive and negative affect, control, demand, fatigue, energy, social interactions, and stressful events were assessed during each sequence.
Multivariate results showed that greater self-efficacy and control predicted greater MVPA at each subsequent assessment throughout the day (p < 0.05). Also, having a positive social interaction was concurrently related to higher levels of MVPA (p = 0.052).
Time-varying multidimensional individual processes predict within daily physical activity levels.

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    • "We found that this variable was not a significant predictor of the next day's physical activity; however self-efficacy on the day of exercise remained significant even when the previous day's measure was included in the model. The temporal relationship between self-efficacy and exercise is similar to that noted in an EMA study of predictors of exercise among older adults, which found that self-efficacy in the previous assessment period predicted moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (Dunton, et al., 2009). SCT posits that relationships between behavior and expectancies, such as self-efficacy and outcome expectations, can be bi-directional. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study evaluated whether social-cognitive theory (SCT) variables, as measured by questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA), predicted exercise in endometrial cancer survivors. Method: One hundred posttreatment endometrial cancer survivors received a 6-month home-based exercise intervention. EMAs were conducted by using hand-held computers for 10- to 12-day periods every 2 months. Participants rated morning self-efficacy and positive and negative outcome expectations by using the computer, recorded exercise information in real time and at night, and wore accelerometers. At the midpoint of each assessment period, participants completed SCT questionnaires. Using linear mixed-effects models, the authors tested whether morning SCT variables predicted minutes of exercise that day (Question 1) and whether exercise minutes at time point Tj could be predicted by questionnaire measures of SCT variables from time point Tj-1 (Question 2). Results: Morning self-efficacy significantly predicted that day's exercise minutes (p < .0001). Morning positive outcome expectations were also associated with exercise minutes (p = .0003), but the relationship was attenuated when self-efficacy was included in the model (p = .4032). Morning negative outcome expectations were not associated with exercise minutes. Of the questionnaire measures of SCT variables, only exercise self-efficacy predicted exercise at the next time point (p = .003). Conclusions: The consistency of the relationship between self-efficacy and exercise minutes over short (same day) and longer (Tj to Tj-1) time periods provides support for a causal relationship. The strength of the relationship between morning self-efficacy and exercise minutes suggest that real-time interventions that target daily variation in self-efficacy may benefit endometrial cancer survivors' exercise adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Health Psychology 02/2013; 32(11). DOI:10.1037/a0031712 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Finally, trait-and-barrier models included the traits and situational factors that had been significant predictors of LTPA in the previous models. Each model included age and gender because research has shown consistently that each of these factors can be related to LTPA or perceived barriers (Duncan, Spence, & Mummery, 2010; Dunton et al., 2009; Sallis, King, Sirard, & Albright, 2007; Sørensen & Gill, 2008). A significance level of p values less than or equal to .05 was used in all analyses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Previous studies examining correlates of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) have identified personality factors that are correlated with LTPA and practical factors that impede LTPA. The purpose of the present study was to test how several narrow traits predict daily reports of LTPA and to test whether traits that predict LTPA moderate the effects of practical barriers. Methods: 1192 participants completed baseline measures of personality, then reported their LTPA and several situational and environmental factors daily for 25 days. We used generalized estimating equations to measure how personality traits, practical barriers, and interactions between these factors affected (1) the odds of engaging in LTPA and (2) the duration of daily LTPA. Results: Higher standing on Activity and Discipline and lower standing on Assertiveness predicted greater odds of engaging in LTPA and longer duration of LTPA, and higher standing on Aesthetics predicted shorter duration of LTPA. Poor weather conditions and less leisure time were associated with less LTPA, and effects of these barriers were generally greater among participants 30 and older. In participants older than 30, poor weather was associated with less LTPA among those with lower standing on Activity but was not associated with LTPA among those high in Activity. Despite Discipline's overall positive association with LTPA, less leisure time and less routineness were greater barriers for those high in Discipline. Conclusions: Assessing narrow personality traits could help target LTPA interventions to individual patients' needs and could help identify important new personality dynamics that affect LTPA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Health Psychology 10/2012; 32(12). DOI:10.1037/a0029956 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Previous studies have generally focused on the relation between social cognitive variables and physical activity among the elderly (mean age 60–79.5) [2] [3] [4] [5]. Very little research has examined how psychosocial variables might be influenced by advancing age or how SCT variables might mediate the influence of aging on physical activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Part one of this study investigated the effect of aging on social-cognitive characteristics related to physical activity (PA) among adults in the baseline phase of a health promotion intervention. Participants' questionnaire responses and activity logs indicated PA levels and self-efficacy declined with age, while social support and the use of self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., goal setting, planning, and keeping track) increased. With age participants were also less likely to expect PA to interfere with their daily routines and social obligations. Part two of the study was among overweight/obese, inactive participants completing the intervention; it examined whether improvements in psychosocial variables might counteract declining PA associated with age. After treatment, participants were more active and decreased body weight regardless of age, and improved self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulatory behaviors. In a causal model, increases in self-efficacy at 7-months lead to increased PA levels and, albeit marginally, weight loss at 16 months; increased PA was associated with greater weight loss. Aging adults who were more confident exercised more and as a result lost more weight. This longitudinal study suggests interventions that offset the effect of aging on self-efficacy may be more successful in helping older participants become more active and avoid weight gain.
    Journal of aging research 04/2011; 2011:505928. DOI:10.4061/2011/505928
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