Mild Hypoxia Enhances Proliferation and Multipotency of Human Neural Stem Cells

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2010; 5(1):e8575. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008575
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neural stem cells (NSCs) represent an optimal tool for studies and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. We recently established a v-myc immortalized human NSC (IhNSC) line, which retains stem properties comparable to parental cells. Oxygen concentration is one of the most crucial environmental conditions for cell proliferation and differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. In the central nervous system, physiological concentrations of oxygen range from 0.55 to 8% oxygen. In particular, in the in the subventricular zone niche area, it's estimated to be 2.5 to 3%.
We investigated in vitro the effects of 1, 2.5, 5, and 20% oxygen concentrations on IhNSCs both during proliferation and differentiation. The highest proliferation rate, evaluated through neurosphere formation assay, was obtained at 2.5 and 5% oxygen, while 1% oxygen was most noxious for cell survival. The differentiation assays showed that the percentages of beta-tubIII+ or MAP2+ neuronal cells and of GalC+ oligodendrocytes were significantly higher at 2.5% compared with 1, 5, or 20% oxygen at 17 days in vitro. Mild hypoxia (2.5 to 5% oxygen) promoted differentiation into neuro-oligodendroglial progenitors as revealed by the higher percentage of MAP2+/Ki67+ and GalC+/Ki67+ residual proliferating progenitors, and enhanced the yield of GABAergic and slightly of glutamatergic neurons compared to 1% and 20% oxygen where a significant percentage of GFAP+/nestin+ cells were still present at 17 days of differentiation.
These findings raise the possibility that reduced oxygen levels occurring in neuronal disorders like cerebral ischemia transiently lead to NSC remaining in a state of quiescence. Conversely, mild hypoxia favors NSC proliferation and neuronal and oligodendroglial differentiation, thus providing an important advance and a useful tool for NSC-mediated therapy of ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hypoxia on the proliferating potential and phenotype of primary human oral keratinocytes cultured at ambient oxygen tension (20%) or at different levels of hypoxia (2 and 0.5% O2). The effects of oxygen tensions on cellular metabolic activity, cell proliferation, clonogenicity and proliferation heterogeneity were measured. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by a fluorescent-activated cell sorter, and p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in the G0/G1 phase was also concomitantly quantitated. The expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins were examined by immunoblotting, and the cellular senescence was assessed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Basal and suprabasal keratinocyte phenotypes were determined by the expression levels of 14-3-3σ, p75(NTR) and α6 integrin. Despite having a lower metabolism, the proliferation rate and clonogenic potential were remarkably enhanced in hypoxic cells. The significantly higher percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase under hypoxia and the expression patterns of cell cycle regulatory proteins in hypoxic cells were indicative of a state of cell cycle arrest in hypoxia. Furthermore, a decrease in the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p16(INK4A) and fewer β-galactosidase-positive cells suggested a quiescent phenotype rather than a senescent one in hypoxic cells. Compared with normoxic cells, the differential expression patterns of keratinocyte phenotypic markers suggest that hypoxic cells that generate minimal reactive oxygen species, suppress the mammalian target of rapamycin activity and express hypoxia-inducible factor-1α favor a basal cell phenotype. Thus, regardless of the predisposition to the state of cell cycle arrest, hypoxic conditions can maintain oral keratinocytes in vitro in an undifferentiated and quiescent state. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cells Tissues Organs 02/2015; DOI:10.1159/000371342 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is an important factor in regulation of cell behavior both under physiological and pathological conditions. The mechanisms of hypoxia-induced cell death have not been completely elucidated yet. It is well known that Ca2+ is critically related to cell survival. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a core regulatory factor during hypoxia, and L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (L-VDCCs) have been reported to play a critical role in cell survival. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between L-VDCC expression and HIF-1α regulation in PC12 cells under hypoxia. PC12 cells were treated at 20 or 3 % O2 to observe its proliferation and the intracellular calcium concentration. Then, we detected the protein expression of HIF-1α and L-VDCCs subtypes, Cav1.2 and Cav1.3. At last, to verify the relationship between HIF-1α and Cav1.2 and Cav1.3, we got the expression of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 with Western blot and luciferase report gene assays after PC12 cells were treated by echinomycin, which is an HIF-1α inhibitor. Compared with 20 % O2 (normoxia), 3 % O2 (hypoxia) inhibited cell proliferation, increased the intracellular calcium concentration, and induced protein expression of HIF-1α. The protein expression of two L-VDCCs subtypes expressed in the nervous system, Cav1.2 and Cav1.3, was upregulated by hypoxia and reduced dose dependently by treatment with echinomycin, a HIF-1α inhibitor. Luciferase report gene assays showed that the expression of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 genes was augmented under 3 % O2. However, echinomycin only slightly and dose dependently decreased expression of the Cav1.2 gene, but not that of the Cav1.3 gene. These data indicated that Cav1.2 might be regulated by HIF-1α as one of its downstream target genes and involved in regulation of PC12 cells death under hypoxia.
    Cell Stress and Chaperones 02/2015; 20(3). DOI:10.1007/s12192-015-0575-2 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulated data indicate that self-renewal, multipotency, and differentiation of neural stem cells are under an intrinsic control mediated by alterations in the redox homeostasis. These dynamic redox changes not only reflect and support the ongoing metabolic and energetic processes, but also serve to coordinate redox-signaling cascades. Controlling particular redox couples seems to have a relevant impact on cell fate decision during development, adult neurogenesis and regeneration. Our own research provided initial evidence for the importance of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes in neural stem cell fate decision. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge on the active role of reactive oxygen species, redox couples and redox-signaling mechanisms on plasticity and function of neural stem and progenitor cells focusing on NAD(P)(+)/NAD(P)H-mediated processes. The compartmentalized subcellular sources and availability of oxidizing/reducing molecules in particular microenvironment define the specificity of redox regulation in modulating the delicate balance between stemness and differentiation of neural progenitors. The generalization of "reactive oxygen species" as well as the ambiguity of their origin might explain the diametrically-opposed findings in the field of redox-dependent cell fate reflected by the literature. Increasing knowledge of temporary and spatially defined redox regulation is of high relevance for the development of novel approaches in the field of cell-based regeneration of nervous tissue in various pathological states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Redox regulation of differentiation and de-differentiation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 02/2015; 97. DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.01.022 · 3.83 Impact Factor