Changes in HIV prevalence among differently educated groups in Tanzania between 2003 and 2007
ABSTRACT HIV prevalence trends suggest that the epidemic is stable or declining in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, trends might differ between socioeconomic groups. Educational attainment is a common measure of socioeconomic position in HIV datasets from Africa. Several studies have shown higher HIV prevalence among more educated groups, but this may change over time. We describe changes in HIV prevalence by educational attainment in Tanzania from 2003 to 2007.
Analysis of data from two large, nationally representative HIV prevalence surveys conducted among adults aged 15-49 years in Tanzania in 2003-2004 (10 934 participants) and 2007-2008 (15 542 participants). We explored whether changes in HIV prevalence differed between groups with different levels of educational attainment after adjustment for potential confounding factors (sex, age, urban/rural residence and household wealth).
Changes in HIV prevalence differed by educational attainment level (interaction test P value = 0.07). HIV prevalence was stable among those with no education (adjusted odds ratio 2007-2008 vs. 2003-2004 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.72-1.47), whereas showing a small but borderline significant decline among those with primary education (adjusted odds ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.69-1.03) and a larger statistically significant decline among those with secondary education (adjusted odds ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.34-0.84).
Prevalent HIV infections are now concentrating among those with the lowest levels of education in Tanzania. Although HIV-related mortality, migration and cohort effects might contribute to this, different HIV incidence by educational level between the surveys provides the most likely explanation. Urgent measures to improve HIV prevention among those with limited education and of low socioeconomic position are necessary in Tanzania.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between unsafe sexual behaviours and poor self-perceived health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in western Africa. In March 2006, a survey was conducted among patients continuing their participation in the TRIVACAN trial (ANRS 1269) in Côte d'Ivoire, in which patients had been randomized to either continuous or interrupted antiretroviral therapy (ART) (2-months-off/4-months-on cycles [2/4-ART]) after 6-18 months of continuous ART (C-ART). Socio-demographic and psychosocial information, including data on sexual behaviours during the previous 6 months, was collected using face-to-face interviews. Sexually active patients with either a steady partner (serodiscordant or of unknown HIV status) or casual partners were considered to have unsafe sexual behaviours if they reported inconsistent condom use (ICU). Seventy-seven of the 192 patients reported ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, men were significantly less likely to report ICU than women (OR [95% CI] = 0.45 [0.20-0.98]). After adjustment for educational level and reduced sexual activity since ART initiation, concealment of HIV status (2.08 [1.02-4.25]) and poor self-perceived health (2.32 [0.97-5.52]) were independently associated with ICU. HIV prevention strategies in resource-limited settings should take into account self-perceived health and difficulties to disclose HIV status. Counselling interventions need to be developed to help PLWHA to adopt or negotiate safe behaviours respecting their individual cultures.Tropical Medicine & International Health 03/2010; 15(6):706-12. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02524.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate the impact of early sexual debut on HIV seroprevalence and incidence rates among a cohort of women. Design Prospective study. Setting KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants A total of 3492 sexually active women who consented to screen a HIV prevention trial during September 2002 to September 2005; a total of 1485 of them were followed for approximately 24 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures HIV seroprevalence among those who were screened for the trial and HIV seroconversion among those who seroconverted during the study. Results Lowest quintiles of age at sexual debut, less than high school education, a higher number of lifetime sexual partners and lack of cohabitation, being diagnosed as having herpes simplex virus 2 and other sexually transmitted infections were all significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection in multivariate analysis. During follow-up, 148 (6.8 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 5.8 to 8.0) women seroconverted. Highest seroconversion rate was observed among women who had reported to have had sex 15 years or younger (12.0 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 8.0 to 18.0). Overall, impact of risk factors considered in this study was associated with considerable potential reductions in HIV prevalence and incidence rates (population attributable risk: 85%, 95% CI 84% to 87% and population attributable risk: 77%, 95% CI 72% to 82%, respectively). Conclusions The association of HIV status with younger age at sexual debut may likely due to an increased number of lifetime partners. This increase could result from longer duration of sexual life. Prevention of HIV infection should include efforts to delay age at first sex in young women. Trial registration number NCT00121459.BMJ Open 01/2012; 2(1):e000285. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000285 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia. We analysed ANC data for women aged 15-24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in the period 1994-2008, and HIV data for young men and women aged 15-24 years from the ZDHS 2001/2 and 2007. In addition, we systematically reviewed peer-reviewed articles that have reported findings on HIV prevalence and incidence among young people. Overall trends of the ANC surveillance data indicated a substantial HIV prevalence decline among young women in both urban and rural areas. However, provincial declines differed substantially, i.e. between 10% and 68% among urban women, and from stability to 86% among rural women. Prevalence declines were steeper among those with the highest educational attainments than among the least educated. The ZDHS data indicated a significant reduction in prevalence between the two survey rounds among young women only. Provincial-level ZDHS changes were difficult to assess because the sample sizes were small. ANC-based trend patterns were consistent with those observed in PMTCT-based data (2002-2006), whereas population-based surveys in a selected urban community (1995-2003) suggested that the ANC-based data underestimated the prevalence declines in the general populations of both young both men and women. The overall HIV prevalence declined substantially among young women in Zambia and this is interpreted as indicating a decline in HIV incidence. It is noteworthy that overall national trends masked substantial differences by place and by educational attainment, demonstrating critical limitations in the current focus on overall country-level trends in epidemiological reports.PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e33652. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033652 · 3.53 Impact Factor