Chemopreventive Effects of Frondanol A5, a Cucumaria frondosa Extract, against Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and Inhibition of Human Colon Cancer Cell Growth
ABSTRACT Sea cucumber extracts have been widely used to treat individuals with inflammatory conditions in East Asia. The present study has been designed to test potential colon cancer-preventive properties of Frondanol A5, a glycolipid extract from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, using in vivo and in vitro models of colon cancer. Chemopreventive efficacy of Frondanol A5 was evaluated on azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis using colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as efficacy marker. At 7 weeks of age, groups of rats (12 per group) were fed the AIN-76A diet, and ACFs were induced by azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Three days after azoxymethane treatment, rats were fed with the diets containing 0, 150, and 450 ppm of Frondanol A5 and continued on the diets for 8 weeks, at which time ACFs were evaluated. Expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p21(WAF1/CIP1) were determined in ACFs. Further, Frondanol A5 (10-120 microg/mL) was studied for its growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects in the HCT-116 cell line. Dietary administration of 150 and 450 ppm of Frondanol A5 significantly suppressed azoxymethane-induced total colonic ACF formation, approximately 34% to 55% (P < 0.01 to P < 0.0001), and multicrypt aberrant foci (48-68.5%, P < 0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner. ACFs in rats treated with Frondanol A5 showed significant upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen compared with control group. Frondanol A5 showed growth inhibition at S and G(2)-M phase with a decrease in Cdc25c and an increase in p21(WAF1/CIP) with significant apoptosis associated with H2AX phosphorylation and caspase-2 cleavage in HCT116 cells. Overall, Frondanol A5 exhibits potential chemopreventive properties for colon carcinogenesis, which suggests further development of this sea cucumber extract.
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ABSTRACT: Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.Marine Drugs 03/2015; 13(3):1202-1223. DOI:10.3390/md13031202 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop less toxic drugs that will improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa and was shown to be a highly safe compound. We investigated the impact of Frondoside A on survival, migration and invasion in vitro, and on tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo alone and in combination with cisplatin. Frondoside A caused concentration-dependent reduction in viability of LNM35, A549, NCI-H460-Luc2, MDA-MB-435, MCF-7, and HepG2 over 24 hours through a caspase 3/7-dependent cell death pathway. The IC50 concentrations (producing half-maximal inhibition) at 24 h were between 1.7 and 2.5 µM of Frondoside A. In addition, Frondoside A induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis in vitro. Frondoside A (0.01 and 1 mg/kg/day i.p. for 25 days) significantly decreased the growth, the angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of LNM35 tumor xenografts in athymic mice, without obvious toxic side-effects. Frondoside A (0.1-0.5 µM) also significantly prevented basal and bFGF induced angiogenesis in the CAM angiogenesis assay. Moreover, Frondoside A enhanced the inhibition of lung tumor growth induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. These findings identify Frondoside A as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53087. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0053087 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The cytotoxic activity of sea cucumber glycosides against different types of cells and cell lines, including human tumor cell lines, has been studied for many years. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of the antitumor action of triterpene glycosides on cancer cells remain unclear. This article reports a continuation of investigations of triterpene glycoside cucumarioside A2-2 isolated from the Far-Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica. It describes a study of glycoside anticancer activity in vivo and glycoside interaction with mouse Ehrlich carcinoma cells in vitro. Methods: The cytotoxicity of cucumarioside A2-2 and its effect on apoptosis, the cell cycle, DNA biosynthesis and p53 activity, and glycoside anticancer action against Ehrlich carcinoma cells were studied. Results: Cucumarioside A2-2 influences tumor cell viability at micromolar concentrations. The EC50 for glycoside estimated by nonspecific esterase assay and MTT assay was 2.1 and 2.7 μM, respectively. Cucumarioside A2-2 at a subcytotoxic range of concentrations exhibits a cytostatic effect by blocking cell proliferation and DNA biosynthesis in the S phase. It may induce apoptosis in tumor cells in a caspase-dependent way, bypassing the activation of the p53-dependent segment. Conclusion: The anticancer and proapoptotic properties of cucumarioside A2-2 may be due to direct interaction of the glycoside with tumor cells. The in vivo anticancer effect of cucumarioside A2-2 may be associated with the ability of the drug to arrest the cell cycle in the synthetic phase and induce programmed tumor cell death. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.Chemotherapy 11/2013; 59(3):181-191. DOI:10.1159/000354156 · 1.55 Impact Factor