Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Early Childhood Behavior
ABSTRACT Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases offspring aggression and diminishes differences in sexually dimorphic behaviors in rodents.
We examined the association between prenatal BPA exposure and behavior in 2-year-old children.
We used data from 249 mothers and their children in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). Maternal urine was collected around 16 and 26 weeks of gestation and at birth. BPA concentrations were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Child behavior was assessed at 2 years of age using the second edition of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2). The association between prenatal BPA concentrations and BASC-2 scores was analyzed using linear regression.
Median BPA concentrations were 1.8 (16 weeks), 1.7 (26 weeks), and 1.3 (birth) ng/mL. Mean (+/- SD) BASC-2 externalizing and internalizing scores were 47.6 +/- 7.8 and 44.8 +/- 7.0, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, log(10)-transformed mean prenatal BPA concentrations were associated with externalizing scores, but only among females [beta = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1-12.0]. Compared with 26-week and birth concentrations, BPA concentrations collected around 16 weeks were more strongly associated with externalizing scores among all children (beta = 2.9; 95% CI, 0.2-5.7), and this association was stronger in females than in males. Among all children, measurements collected at <or= 16 weeks showed a stronger association (beta = 5.1; 95% CI, 1.5-8.6) with externalizing scores than did measurements taken at 17-21 weeks (beta = 0.6; 95% CI, -2.9 to 4.1).
These results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may be associated with externalizing behaviors in 2-year-old children, especially among female children.
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ABSTRACT: Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can induce promiscuous neurobehavioral disturbances. Bisphenol A and phthalates are two widely prevalent and persistent EDCs reported to lead to such effects. Parental and social behaviors are especially vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these traits are programmed by the organizational-activational effects of testosterone and estrogen. Exposure to BPA and other EDCs disrupts normal maternal care provided by rodents and non-human primates, such as nursing, time she spends hunched over and in the nest, and grooming her pups. Paternal care may also be affected by BPA. No long-term study has linked perinatal exposure to BPA or other EDC and later parental behavioral deficits in humans. The fact that the same brain regions and neural hormone substrates govern parental behaviors in animal models and humans suggests that this suite of behaviors may also be vulnerable in the latter. Social behaviors, such as communication, mate choice, pair bonding, social inquisitiveness and recognition, play behavior, social grooming, copulation, and aggression, are compromised in animal models exposed to BPA, phthalates, and other EDCs. Early contact to these chemicals is also correlated with maladaptive social behaviors in children. These behavioral disturbances may originate by altering the fetal or adult gonadal production of testosterone or estrogen, expression of ESR1, ESR2, and AR in the brain regions governing these behaviors, neuropeptide/protein hormone (oxytocin, vasopressin, and prolactin) and their cognate neural receptors, and/or through epimutations. Robust evidence exists for all of these EDC-induced changes. Concern also exists for transgenerational persistence of such neurobehavioral disruptions. In sum, evidence for social and parental deficits induced by BPA, phthalates, and related chemicals is strongly mounting, and such effects may ultimately compromise the overall social fitness of populations to come.Frontiers in Neuroscience 03/2015; 9:57. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00057
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ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, welldescribed estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.
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ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003-2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=-36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -58.4, -1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: -28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (-42.9%; 95% CI: -59.9, -18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: -17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA-TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Environmental Research 03/2015; 138:453-460. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.03.003 · 3.95 Impact Factor