Long-term effects of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on the life course of youths: 19-Year follow-up of a randomized trial
ABSTRACT To examine the effect of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on the life course development of 19-year-old youths whose mothers participated in the program.
Semirural community in New York.
Three hundred ten youths from the 400 families enrolled in the Elmira Nurse-Family Partnership program. Intervention Families received a mean of 9 home visits (range, 0-16) during pregnancy and 23 (range, 0-59) from birth through the child's second birthday.
Youth self-reports of educational achievement, reproductive behaviors, welfare use, and criminal involvement.
Relative to the comparison group, girls in the pregnancy and infancy nurse-visited group were less likely to have been arrested (10% vs 30%; relative risk [RR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.82) and convicted (4% vs 20%; 0.20; 0.05-0.85) and had fewer lifetime arrests (mean: 0.10 vs 0.54; incidence RR [IRR], 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06-0.54) and convictions (0.04 vs 0.37; 0.11; 0.02-0.51). Nurse-visited girls born to unmarried and low-income mothers had fewer children (11% vs 30%; RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12-1.02) and less Medicaid use (18% vs 45%; 0.40; 0.18-0.87) than their comparison group counterparts.
Prenatal and infancy home visitation reduced the proportion of girls entering the criminal justice system. For girls born to high-risk mothers, there were additional positive program effects consistent with results from earlier phases of this trial. There were few program effects for boys.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Kimberly Sidora-Arcoleo, Aug 12, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Daniel W Belsky
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- "Intervention during childhood to promote human capital development has the potential to prevent a cascade of negative outcomes, including poor health, criminal behavior, and overreliance on government services in the future (Anderson et al., 2003; Dodge, 2009; Eckenrode et al., 2010; Garner et al., 2011; Heckman et al., 2010; O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Evidence of this has made strategies for investing in youth a policy priority in the United States and globally (America's Promise Alliance, 2013; Barnett & Masse, 2007; Belfield et al., 2006; Heckman, 2006; Obama, 2013). "
ABSTRACT: Early interventions are a preferred method for addressing behavioral problems in high-risk children, but often have only modest effects. Identifying sources of variation in intervention effects can suggest means to improve efficiency. One potential source of such variation is the genome. We conducted a genetic analysis of the Fast Track randomized control trial, a 10-year-long intervention to prevent high-risk kindergarteners from developing adult externalizing problems including substance abuse and antisocial behavior. We tested whether variants of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 were associated with differences in response to the Fast Track intervention. We found that in European-American children, a variant of NR3C1 identified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10482672 was associated with increased risk for externalizing psychopathology in control group children and decreased risk for externalizing psychopathology in intervention group children. Variation in NR3C1 measured in this study was not associated with differential intervention response in African-American children. We discuss implications for efforts to prevent externalizing problems in high-risk children and for public policy in the genomic era.Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 06/2015; 34(3). DOI:10.1002/pam.21811 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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- "The effects of parental relationships on antisocial behavior also appear to endure beyond adolescence, as longitudinal studies have shown that good parenting prevents crime well into the future (Laub and Sampson, 2003; Rocque et al., 2012; Sampson and Laub, 2003; Thornberry and Krohn, 2003). David Olds' Nurse Family Partnership program showed that parent management training in the first years of life was a significant predictor of reduced crime and delinquency to age 19 (Eckenrode et al., 2010). Prosocial bonds have also been found to reduce crime among released offenders, suggesting that bonds might prevent victimization by preventing overall exposure to crime (Rocque et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: Family bonding is a mainstay in theories of crime and delinquency. Recently, it has also been extended to explain exposure to victimization in the US and abroad. Although research reveals that there are differences between countries in their views about the importance of family, scholarship has not yet considered how and why the protective features of family bonding might vary across the country context according to how the family is valued. This study, using data from the second International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2), reveals that both individual levels of family bonding and macro levels of the perceived importance of the family are negatively related to victimization. Analyses suggest that exposure to victimization and the effects of family bonding vary across contexts where the effect of family bonding on victimization is stronger in countries that view the family as more important. We conclude that these results contribute insight into the operationalization of victimization theories across the country context and that policies at the country level may prove useful in reducing victimization risk.European Journal of Criminology 06/2014; 12(1). DOI:10.1177/1477370814538777 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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- "When crime prevention harms: a review of systematic reviews null effect at age 19. This is exactly what happened for the treatment group boys (compared to their control counterparts) in the age-19 follow-up of the Nurse-Family Partnership program (Eckenrode et al. 2010). By using the latest follow-up of the studies, we were able to account for this possibility. "
ABSTRACT: Objectives In a series of important scholarly works, Joan McCord made the case for the criminological community to take seriously harmful effects arising from individual-based crime prevention programs. Building on these works, two key questions are of central interest to this paper: What has been the state of research on harmful effects of these crime prevention programs since McCord’s works? And what are the theoretical, methodological, and programmatic characteristics of individual-based crime prevention programs with reported harmful effects? Methods This paper reports on the first empirical review of harmful effects of crime prevention programs, drawing upon 15 Campbell Collaboration systematic reviews. Altogether, 574 experimental and quasi-experimental studies (published and unpublished) with 645 independent effect sizes were reviewed. Results A total of 22 harmful effects from 22 unique studies of individual-based crime prevention programs were identified. Almost all of the studies have been reported since 1990, all but 2 were carried out in the United States, and two-thirds can be considered unpublished. The studies covered a wide range of interventions, from anti-bullying programs at schools, to second responder interventions involving police, to the Scared Straight program for juvenile delinquents, with more than half taking place in criminal justice settings. Boot camps and drug courts accounted for the largest share of studies with harmful effects. Conclusions Theory failure, implementation failure, and deviancy training were identified as the leading explanations for harmful effects of crime prevention programs, and they served as key anchors for a more focused look at implications for theory and policy. Also, the need for programs to be rigorously evaluated and monitored is evident, which will advance McCord’s call for attention to safety and efficacy.Journal of Experimental Criminology 01/2014; 10(3). DOI:10.1007/s11292-014-9199-2 · 1.17 Impact Factor