Amplified Inflammatory Response to Sequential Hemorrhage, Resuscitation, and Pulmonary Fat Embolism An Animal Study
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the role of pulmonary fat embolism caused by intramedullary pressurization of the femoral canal in the development of acute lung injury in the setting of acute hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation.
Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) nine animals in which hemorrhagic shock was induced by carotid bleeding, resuscitation was performed, and the femoral canal was reamed and pressurized with bone cement to induce fat embolism (hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation/fat embolism [HR/FE] group); (2) six animals in which shock was induced by carotid bleeding, resuscitation was performed, and a sham knee incision was made and closed without drilling, reaming, or pressurization (hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation [HR] group); (3) eight animals in which no hemorrhage or shock was induced but the femoral canal was reamed and pressurized with bone cement to induce fat embolism (fat embolism [FE] group); and (4) seven animals that had a three-hour ventilation period followed by a sham knee incision (control group). The animals were ventilated for four hours following closure. Flow cytometry with use of antibodies against CD45 and CD11b was performed to test neutrophil activation in whole blood. Histological examination of lung specimens was also performed. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed for monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 and interleukin-8 levels with use of the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method.
Three animals in the HR/FE group died immediately after canal pressurization and were excluded. CD11b mean channel fluorescence was significantly elevated, as compared with baseline, only in the HR/FE group at two hours (p = 0.025) and four hours (p = 0.024) after knee closure. Histological analysis showed that only the HR/FE (p < 0.001) and HR (p = 0.010) groups had significantly greater infiltration of alveoli by polymorphonuclear leukocytes as compared with that in the controls. No significant differences in plasma cytokine levels were found between the groups. Only the HR/FE group had significantly higher interleukin-8 (p = 0.020) and monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (p = 0.004) levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as compared with those in the controls.
Fat embolism from canal pressurization alone did not activate a pulmonary inflammatory response. The combination of hemorrhagic shock, resuscitation, and fat embolism elicited neutrophil activation, infiltration of alveoli by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and inflammatory cytokine expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
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ABSTRACT: Performing multiple tests in primary research is a frequent subject of discussion. This discussion originates from the fact that when multiple tests are performed, it becomes more likely to reject one of the null hypotheses, conditional on that these hypotheses are true and thus commit a type one error. Several correction methods for multiple testing are available. The primary aim of this study was to assess the quantity of articles published in two highly esteemed orthopedic journals in which multiple testing was performed. The secondary aims were to determine in which percentage of these studies a correction was performed and to assess the risk of committing a type one error if no correction was applied. The 2010 annals of two orthopedic journals (A and B) were systematically hand searched by two independent investigators. All articles on original research in which statistics were applied were considered. Eligible publications were reviewed for the use of multiple testing with respect to predetermined criteria. A total of 763 titles were screened and 127 articles were identified and included in the analysis. A median of 15 statistical inference results were reported per publication in both journal A and B. Correction for multiple testing was performed in 15% of the articles published in journal A and in 6% from journal B. The estimated median risk of obtaining at least one significant result for uncorrected studies was calculated to be 54% for both journals. This study shows that the risk of false significant findings is considerable and that correcting for multiple testing is only performed in a small percentage of all articles published in the orthopedic literature reviewed.BMC Research Notes 09/2013; 6(1):374. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-6-374
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: Intravasation of bone marrow contents into venous circulation and pulmonary embolization after intramedullary nailing may be coupled with the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades. The objective of this study was to assess hemostatic response to pulmonary extravasated marrow contents. We hypothesize that activation of platelet activity and the coagulation cascade may occur after embolization of marrow contents in an experimental animal model of intramedullary nailing. METHODS:: Fifteen New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly assigned to control or fat embolism (FE) groups. In the FE group (n = 8), femurs were surgically instrumented with retrograde intramedullary nails and pressurized with bone cement. In the control group (n = 7), a sham knee incision was made that was immediately closed without drilling, reaming, or pressurization. Fibrinogen, D-dimer latex screen assay, 1 stage prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time were analyzed. RESULTS:: As the main platelet activation indicators, the marker Annexin-V percent binding increased in the FE group at 2 hours (P = 0.04) and 4 hours (P = 0.04), and the marker CD62P percent expression increased in the FE group at 2 hours (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:: This preliminary study showed that pressurization of marrow and intravasation of fat and marrow products cause activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade, with or without tissue trauma. This may be relevant to the treatment of multiply injured patients with prior respiratory and coagulation abnormalities. A future larger study may be needed.Journal of orthopaedic trauma 04/2012; 26(11):e214-e220. DOI:10.1097/BOT.0b013e3182410560 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Numerous experimental studies have been performed to investigate the adverse effects of reamed versus unreamed nailing in isolated or combined trauma models. However, the translational relevance is still discussed controversially.Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 06/2014; 76(6):1495-506. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000236 · 1.97 Impact Factor