Deletion of penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) sensitises Escherichia coli cells to beta-lactam agents.
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5), a dd-carboxypeptidase encoded by the dacA gene, plays a key role in the maintenance of cell shape. Although PBP5 shares one of the highest copy numbers among the PBPs, it is not essential for cell survival. To determine the effect of this redundant PBP on beta-lactam antibiotic susceptibility, PBP5 was deleted from O-antigen-negative E. coli K-12 (CS109) and O8-antigen-positive E. coli 2443, thus creating strains AM15-1 and AG1O5-1, respectively. Compared with the parent strains, both mutants were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to all the beta-lactam antibiotics tested. Reversion to beta-lactam resistance was observed in the mutants upon complementing with cloned PBP5, indicating the involvement of PBP5 in maintaining an O-antigen-independent intrinsic beta-lactam resistance in E. coli cells. To check whether other dacA homologues were able to substitute this behaviour of E. coli PBP5, AG1O5-1 was complemented with its nearest dacA homologues (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, Vibrio cholerae and Haemophilus influenzae). All of the cloned homologues were capable of restoring the lost beta-lactam resistance in AG1O5-1, either completely or at least partially. Therefore, apart from maintaining cell shape, involvement of PBP5 in maintaining intrinsic beta-lactam resistance is an important physiological observation and we speculate that such a strategy of deleting PBP5 may be helpful to introduce beta-lactam susceptibility in the laboratory.
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ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli has 12 recognized penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), four of which (PBPs 4, 5, and 6 and DacD) have DD-carboxypeptidase activity. Although the enzymology of the DD-carboxypeptidases has been studied extensively, the in vivo functions of these proteins are poorly understood. To explain why E. coli maintains four independent loci encoding enzymes of considerable sequence identity and comparable in vitro activity, it has been proposed that the DD-carboxypeptidases may substitute for one another in vivo. We tested the validity of this equivalent substitution hypothesis by investigating the effects of these proteins on the aberrant morphology of DeltadacA mutants, which produce no PBP 5. Although cloned PBP 5 complemented the morphological phenotype of a DeltadacA mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs, controlled expression of PBP 4, PBP 6, or DacD did not. Also, a truncated PBP 5 protein lacking its amphipathic C-terminal membrane binding sequence did not reverse the morphological defects and was lethal at low levels of expression, implying that membrane anchoring is essential for the proper functioning of PBP 5. By examining a set of mutants from which multiple PBP genes were deleted, we found that significant morphological aberrations required the absence of at least three different PBPs. The greatest defects were observed in cells lacking, at minimum, PBPs 5 and 6 and one of the endopeptidases (either PBP 4 or PBP 7). The results further differentiate the roles of the low-molecular-weight PBPs, suggest a functional significance for the amphipathic membrane anchor of PBP 5 and, when combined with the recently determined crystal structure of PBP 5, suggest possible mechanisms by which these PBPs may contribute to maintenance of a uniform cell shape in E. coli.Journal of Bacteriology 06/2001; 183(10):3055-64. · 3.19 Impact Factor
- PLOS Pathogens - PLOS PATHOG. 01/2009; 5(3).
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ABSTRACT: Benzylpenicillin has been used extensively for approximately 40 years in the treatment of gonorrhoea. The intense selective pressures resulting from the continual exposure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin have resulted in the emergence of resistant strains that produce altered forms of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) with decreased affinity for the antibiotic. A comparison of the sequences of the PBP-2 genes from penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant strains, suggests that penicillin-resistant forms of PBP 2 may have arisen both by amino-acid substitutions and insertions, and by the exchange of a region encoding part of the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase domain with the homologous region from a closely related species.Nature 04/1988; 332(6160):173-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor