Clinical and economic outcomes in a population-based European cohort of 948 ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients by Markov analysis.
ABSTRACT Forecasting clinical and economic outcomes in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients is complex, but necessary.
To determine: the frequency of treatment-classified clinical states; the probability of transition between states; and the economic outcomes.
Newly diagnosed UC and CD patients, allocated into seven clinical states by medical and surgical treatments recorded in serial 3-month cycles, underwent Markov analysis.
Over 10 years, 630 UC and 318 CD patients had 22,823 and 11,871 cycles. The most frequent clinical outcomes were medical/surgical remission (medication-free) and mild disease (on 5-aminosalicylates, antibiotics, topical corticosteroids), comprising 28% and 62% of UC cycles and 24% and 51% of CD cycles respectively. The probability of drug-response in patients receiving systemic corticosteroids/immunomodulators was 0.74 in UC, 0.66 in CD. Both diseases had similar likelihood of persistent drug-dependency or drug-refractoriness. Surgery was more probable in CD, 0.20, than UC, 0.08. In terms of economic outcomes, surgery was costlier in UC per cycle, but the outlay over 10 years was greater in CD. Drug-refractory UC and CD cases engendered high costs in the cohort.
Most patients on 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunomodulators had favourable clinical and economic outcomes over 10 years. Drug-refractory and surgical patients exhibited greater long-term expenses.
- SourceAvailable from: Beth A Bailey[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is a global pandemic associated with increased health care costs and could play a role in the pathogenesis and management of inflammatory bowel disease. This study examined vitamin D status in veterans with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and assessed its relationship to health care costs and service utilization. Veteran patients (n = 125) with UC or CD and with an available 25-hydroxyvitamin D level were studied. CD patients were more likely to be vitamin D insufficient than the UC group. Despite the higher vitamin D levels among UC patients, they were significantly more likely to utilize laboratory and pharmacy services compared with CD patients, whereas patients with CD had significantly higher radiology and pharmacy costs. Thus, it is likely that disease-specific characteristics rather than vitamin D status determine the costs of health care services in veterans with established inflammatory bowel disease.Military medicine 06/2011; 176(6):711-4. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Combination therapy with infliximab (IFX) and azathioprine (AZA) is significantly more effective for treatment of active Crohn's disease (CD) than IFX monotherapy. However, AZA is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA for drug-refractory CD. METHODS: A decision analysis model is constructed to compare, over a time horizon of 1year, the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA and that of IFX monotherapy for CD patients refractory to conventional non-anti-TNF-α therapy. The treatment efficacy, adverse effects, quality-of-life scores, and treatment costs are derived from published data. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses are performed to estimate the uncertainty in the results. RESULTS: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA is 24,917 GBP/QALY when compared with IFX monotherapy. The sensitivity analyses reveal that the utility score of nonresponding active disease has the strongest influence on the cost-effectiveness, with ICERs ranging from 17,147 to 45,564 GBP/QALY. Assuming that policy makers are willing to pay 30,000 GBP/QALY, the probability that combination therapy with IFX plus AZA is cost-effective is 0.750. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with IFX plus AZA appears to be a cost-effective treatment for drug-refractory CD when compared with IFX monotherapy. Furthermore, the additional lymphoma risk of combination therapy has little significance on its cost-effectiveness.Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 05/2012; · 3.39 Impact Factor