Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0559, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 04/2010; 58(7):3996-4000. DOI: 10.1021/jf9029332
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of dementia is increasing with expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to address this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominently anthocyanins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, anthocyanins have been associated with increased neuronal signaling in brain centers, mediating memory function as well as improved glucose disposal, benefits that would be expected to mitigate neurodegeneration. This study investigated the effects of daily consumption of wild blueberry juice in a sample of nine older adults with early memory changes. At 12 weeks, improved paired associate learning (p = 0.009) and word list recall (p = 0.04) were observed. In addition, there were trends suggesting reduced depressive symptoms (p = 0.08) and lower glucose levels (p = 0.10). We also compared the memory performances of the blueberry subjects with a demographically matched sample who consumed a berry placebo beverage in a companion trial of identical design and observed comparable results for paired associate learning. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit and establish a basis for more comprehensive human trials to study preventive potential and neuronal mechanisms.

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Available from: Robert Krikorian, Jul 31, 2014
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    • "Most of the beneficial effects attributed to polyphenols are related to the antioxidant and biological properties conferred by their chemical features. For these reasons, there has been a great interest over the past few years in the research for applications of polyphenols in the food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries (Krikorian et al., 2010; Spencer, Vauzour, & Rendeiro, 2009). However, polyphenols are soluble in water while sparingly soluble in more lipophilic media, which may compromise their effective application in lipophilic systems, such as fats, oils, lipid-based foods, cosmetic formulations and emulsions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The acylation of procyanidin B4 with a saturated fatty acid chloride containing 18 carbon atoms was studied in order to obtain procyanidin B4 3-O-di-stearic acid conjugate. This compound was structurally characterised by mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Derivatization of malvidin-3-glucoside using stearoyl chloride in acetonitrile was also performed yielding mono-, di- and tri-stearic ester derivatives. The novel derivatives obtained revealed significant antioxidant activity, although lower than the respective precursors. However, the chemical modification of anthocyanins and procyanidins (water soluble pigments) to more lipophilic compounds has the advantage of increased bioavailability in biological matrices, and to potentiate their application in food matrices and cosmetic products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Food Chemistry 05/2015; 174:480-6. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.062 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "h benefi ts of the high anthocyanin content of some species include anti - infl ammatory ( Wang et al . 1999 ) , antitumor ( Adams et al . 2010 , Chen et al . 2008b , Kamei et al . 1995 ) , antiulcer ( Cristoni and Magistretti 1987 ) , decreased cardiovascular risk ( Basu et al . 2010 ) , and slowing the aging of motor skills and memory function ( Krikorian et al . 2010 ; XianJun et al . 2011 ) . Blueberry consumption is also linked to lowering low - density lipoprotein cholesterol ( Chen et al . 2008a , Qin et al . 2009 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Vaccinium represents an increasingly important group of plants for the U.S. green industry. In 2012, blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) ranked the second most important berry crop in the U.S. with a total crop value over $780 million. The popularity of blueberries creates opportunities as well as challenges for nursery crop producers. This article presents a review of current nursery production practices of blueberry and explores the challenges and opportunities for nursery crop producers, including pesticide use during nursery production of an edible crop, and discusses current research relevant to the green industry. Needs for additional research and opportunities for breeding are presented. Blueberries are Ericaceous plants and have very specifi c cultural requirements. This review presents the culture, as well as insect, mite, and disease control from an integrated pest management (IPM) approach for several blueberry species. A serious threat to the blueberry market, spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura) is discussed to provide information needed by commercial producers and landscape managers to address client and customer questions. This review also highlights the most relevant blueberry selections for container production in the southeastern United States.
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    • "However, the differences may be attributed to the size of the fruits (Prior et al., 1998), because many studies demonstrated that smaller fruits have a high concentration of anthocyanins, because they are more concentrated in the skin than the pulp (Gao & Mazza, 1994; Moyer et al., 2002) and because it can depend on the climactic conditions (Agati et al., 2012) and type of cultivation (Hakkinen & Torronen, 2000). Anthocyanins have been shown to have human health benefits in many studies, due to their anti-inflammatory (Krikorian et al., 2010), anticancer (Giusti & Jing, 2007; Seeram et al., 2006) and anti-mutagenic activities which are capable of blocking the metabolism of cancer cells and even kill them (Nile & Park, 2014; Smith et al., 2004). The antioxidant concentrations found in the hydrophilic extracts are shown in Table 3. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene–linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1622–3457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140–318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.
    Food Chemistry 12/2014; 164:81–88. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.114 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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