Inhibition of return in static but not necessarily in dynamic search

Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Attention Perception & Psychophysics (Impact Factor: 2.17). 01/2010; 72(1):76-85. DOI: 10.3758/APP.72.1.76
Source: PubMed


If and when search involves the serial inspection of items by covert or overt attention, its efficiency would be enhanced by a mechanism that would discourage re-inspections of items or regions of the display that had already been examined. Klein (1988, 2000; Klein & Dukewich, 2006) proposed that inhibition of return (IOR) might be such a mechanism. The present experiments explored this proposal by combining a dynamic search task (Horowitz & Wolfe, 1998, 2003) with a probe-detection task. IOR was observed when search was most efficient (static and slower dynamic search). IOR was not observed when search performance was less efficient (fast dynamic search).These findings are consistent with the "foraging facilitator" proposal of IOR and are unpredicted by theories of search that assume parallel accumulation of information across the array (plus noise) as a general explanation for the effect of set size upon search performance.

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Available from: Raymond M Klein, May 12, 2014
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    • "First, although the manual data from Experiment 1 yielded patterns qualitatively similar to the key findings from Horowitz and Wolfe (1998), we also observed in these data a pronounced eccentricity effect that differentially affected miss rates in the static and dynamic search conditions. Based on this finding, we hypothesize that display contingencies, notably the higher probability of a target appearing in peripheral display locations relative to more central locations, might have influenced dynamic search efficiency in previous experiments (Horowitz and Wolfe, 1998; von Mühlenen et al., 2003; Geyer et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2010). Second, we found dramatic differences in the oculomotor behavior of observers participating in the dynamic and static search tasks. "
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments are reported that further explore the processes underlying dynamic search. In Experiment 1, observers' oculomotor behavior was monitored while they searched for a randomly oriented T among oriented L distractors under static and dynamic viewing conditions. Despite similar search slopes, eye movements were less frequent and more spatially constrained under dynamic viewing relative to static, with misses also increasing more with target eccentricity in the dynamic condition. These patterns suggest that dynamic search involves a form of sit-and-wait strategy in which search is restricted to a small group of items surrounding fixation. To evaluate this interpretation, we developed a computational model of a sit-and-wait process hypothesized to underlie dynamic search. In Experiment 2 we tested this model by varying fixation position in the display and found that display positions optimized for a sit-and-wait strategy resulted in higher d' values relative to a less optimal location. We conclude that different strategies, and therefore underlying processes, are used to search static and dynamic displays.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2013; 4:8. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00008 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies that followed the covert and overt probe-following-search paradigms of Klein (1988) and Klein and MacInnes (1999) to explore inhibition of return (IOR) in search are analyzed and evaluated. An IOR effect is consistently observed when the search display (or scene) remains visible when probing and lasts for at least 1000ms or about four previous inspected items (or locations). These findings support the idea that IOR facilitates foraging by discouraging orienting toward previously examined regions and items. Methodological and conceptual issues are discussed leading to methodological recommendations and suggestions for experimentation.
    Vision research 11/2009; 50(2):220-8. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2009.11.013 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several theories and models of visual search assume that inhibitory tagging of items is used to improve the efficiency of the search process, by discouraging revisits of previously inspected and rejected items. Therefore, search should become less efficient when the search display consists of moving items. In four experiments this hypothesis was tested. In the first two experiments there was no difference between search amongst static and moving items even though motion conditions were blocked (Experiment 1), or displays contained up to 36 items (Experiment 2). However, in Experiments 3 and 4, where the items used in the search display forced the participants to keep track of individual items performance dropped when the items moved. Visual search showed a remarkable robustness against motion, which current theories and models of visual search have difficulties to describe. Taken together, the results reported here indicate that there is a difference between the processes used in easier search and those used in search where items need to be individuated. A framework encompassing these results is proposed.
    Vision research 09/2010; 50(20):2069-79. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2010.07.017 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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