Occurrence risk and structure of depression in Parkinson disease with and without dementia: results from the GEPAD Study.
ABSTRACT This study examined the age- and gender-specific risk of depression in demented and non-demented participants, its symptom structure, and associated clinical factors in a nationwide random sample of n = 1449 outpatients with Parkinson disease (PD).
Depression ratings were based on a cross-sectional clinical assessment including the clinical Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS > or = 14). Parkinson disease severity was rated according to Hoehn and Yahr (HY) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Diagnosis of dementia was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition; DSM-IV) criteria.
25.2% (CI: 22.8-27.5) of all patients met study criteria for depression. Additionally, 8.4% of patients did not exceed the MADRS cut-off but were currently being treated with antidepressants, possibly suggesting a corrected (upper limit) total prevalence of 33.6%. Females were more likely depressive than males (29.3% vs 22.4%). In both genders, depression risk was elevated 2- to 4-fold depending on HY stage. Overall, highest rates in non-demented patients were found in females at stages IV to V (53.7%, CI: 37.7-69.6). Demented patients were more likely to meet depression criteria than non-demented (up to 76.2%, 95% CI: 60.5-87.9). Depression symptom profiles for demented PD patients (as compared to non-demented) revealed no structural differences but consistently higher symptom scores. Neither age at onset of PD nor duration of disease were significantly linked with depression.
Depression rates are already substantially elevated at early PD stages, emphasizing the need for a thorough examination of mood disorders in all patients with PD. Depression is associated with PD severity and dementia but not with age, age at onset of PD, or disease duration. The differential associations with dementia and the statistical independence of dementia and depression also suggest that depression could not be regarded as a mere demoralisation syndrome.
- SourceAvailable from: Thomas Richardson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with significant symptoms of depression. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective for depression in PD. However, much of the previous research focuses on working with younger adults in the earlier stages of the disease, despite evidence for greater risk of depression when PD symptoms are more severe. This paper provides a case illustration of using CBT for depression with an 84-year-old man with advanced PD. The results of an assessment are described and a psychological formulation is presented. The specific adaptations made to the therapy and illustrations of the content of therapy are discussed. This intervention resulted in improvements in global mental health and moderate reductions in depression. However, there was no effect on anxiety. This case highlights the complexity of conducting CBT with this population, and further research is needed to determine the modifications necessary to make such interventions effective.The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist 09/2012; 5(2-3). DOI:10.1017/S1754470X12000049
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are one of the most common health problems in the elderly. Cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders and behavioural changes as well as psychotic symptoms constitute an invariable part of the clinical manifestation of these diseases. Psychopathological syndromes influence management decisions, commonly being a reason for patients' institutionalization; they are also a cause of suffering of patients and their caregivers and relatives. Relevant diagnosis of psychological symptoms is crucial in establishing adequate therapy, which improves quality of life of patients and their caregivers. The paper provides an overview of the psychopathological presentation of the most common central nervous system diseases in the elderly.Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska 45(2):161-8. · 0.54 Impact Factor