Immunohistochemical expression of estrogens and progesterone receptors in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma-undifferentiated and adenocarcinoma types.
ABSTRACT Cancer of the salivary gland is one of the common cancers in the head and the neck regions. This type of cancer develops in the minor and the major salivary glands, and it sometimes metastasizes to other organs, particularly the lung. Morphologic mimicry and similarity in the expression of steroid hormone receptors between salivary gland tumours and breast tumours are well-known phenomena and are occasionally debated in the field of surgical pathology. The expression of sex hormone receptors in some tumours suggests a role for these receptors in tumor pathogenesis and therapy. Previous studies of the expression of estrogens and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumours have reported conflicting results.
Our study aimed to characterize alteration in the immunohistochemical expression of oestrogens receptor and progesterone receptor in the tumour cells of carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma.
27 cases of carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma (undifferentiated and adenocarcinoma types) were examined.
The results showed that 27 (100 %) of 27 cases had negative nuclear staining for either oestrogens or progesterone receptors.
Our data suggest that carcinomas arising in pleomorphic adenoma were not dependent on endocrine function.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mohammad Zakaria Nassani, May 30, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca ex PA) is a carcinoma arising from a primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It often poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. This study intends to review the literature and highlight the current clinical and molecular perspectives about this entity. The most common clinical presentation of CA ex PA is of a firm mass in the parotid gland. The proportion of adenoma and carcinoma components determines the macroscopic features of this neoplasm. The entity is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. Pathologic assessment is the gold standard for making the diagnosis. Treatment for Ca ex PA often involves an ablative surgical procedure which may be followed by radiotherapy. Overall, patients with Ca ex PA have a poor prognosis. Accurate diagnosis and aggressive surgical management of patients presenting with Ca ex PA can increase their survival rates. Molecular studies have revealed that the development of Ca ex PA follows a multi-step model of carcinogenesis, with the progressive loss of heterozygosity at chromosomal arms 8q, then 12q and finally 17p. There are specific candidate genes in these regions that are associated with particular stages in the progression of Ca ex PA. In addition, many genes which regulate tumour suppression, cell cycle control, growth factors and cell-cell adhesion play a role in the development and progression of Ca ex PA. It is hopeful that these molecular data can give clues for the diagnosis and management of the disease.Head and Neck Pathology 07/2011; 6(1):1-9. DOI:10.1007/s12105-011-0281-z
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ABSTRACT: Hormone therapy is highly recommended on patients with breast cancer who show positive nuclear staining of the cancer cells. It is not known however whether salivary gland tumours can respond to hormone therapy. Twenty eight studies undertaken between 1980 to 2009 involving different types of salivary gland cancers were evaluated and taken into consideration the type of used antibody and the criteria to assess the intensity staining. This review has shown that estrogen progesterone and androgen receptors were detected in few cases of salivary gland tumours. Different types of used antibodies were identified, and the criteria of assessment of the staining intensity were different as well. The outcome of this review indicated that the growth of those tumours was not dependent on hormone function. It is recommended that sensitive and specific biochemical methods can be used to determine if estrogen and progesterone receptors can be detected in salivary gland cancers. It is necessary to use one criterion such as positive or negative nuclear staining to determine the existence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and to avoid any bias. The discrepancy in the results reflects a clear need for consensus on a protocol for scoring of immunohistochemical staining. Key words: oestrogen, progesterone, androgen receptors, salivary gland tumours.gulf journal of oncology, The 01/2012; 1(11):50-9.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low doses of estrone on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoprecursor cells. The effect on cell viability was determined using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, whereas differentiation and mineralization were examined using an alkaline phosphatase activity test and alizarin red S staining, respectively. The protein expression of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) and osteopontin (OPN) is assosciated with bone formation. Cell cultures grown in the presence of estrone at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 nM demonstrated an increase in relative values in the MTT assay and cells grown in the presence of estrone at the 10 nM concentration demonstrated an increase in mineralization. The results of the western blot analysis indicated that the addition of estrone upregulated ER-α and ER-β expression, but downregulated the expression of OPN. Based on these findings, it was hypothesized that a low dose of estrone produces positive effects on the mineralization of osteoprecursor cells. Moreover, these results also suggested that higher doses of estrone may be required to significantly enhance the differentiation and mineralization.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 10/2012; 4(4):681-684. DOI:10.3892/etm.2012.655 · 0.94 Impact Factor