Article

Cellular IAPs inhibit a cryptic CD95-induced cell death by limiting RIP1 kinase recruitment.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.69). 12/2009; 187(7):1037-54. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200904158
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A role for cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs [cIAPs]) in preventing CD95 death has been suspected but not previously explained mechanistically. In this study, we find that the loss of cIAPs leads to a dramatic sensitization to CD95 ligand (CD95L) killing. Surprisingly, this form of cell death can only be blocked by a combination of RIP1 (receptor-interacting protein 1) kinase and caspase inhibitors. Consistently, we detect a large increase in RIP1 levels in the CD95 death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and in a secondary cytoplasmic complex (complex II) in the presence of IAP antagonists and loss of RIP1-protected cells from CD95L/IAP antagonist-induced death. Cells resistant to CD95L/IAP antagonist treatment could be sensitized by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP). However, only cFLIP(L) and not cFLIP(S) interfered with RIP1 recruitment to the DISC and complex II and protected cells from death. These results demonstrate a fundamental role for RIP1 in CD95 signaling and provide support for a physiological role of caspase-independent death receptor-mediated cell death.

1 Follower
 · 
101 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Given their crucial role in apoptosis suppression, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) have recently become attractive targets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) is specifically stabilized in several cancer cell lines, leading to resistance to Smac mimetics, such as BV6 and birinapant. In particular, our results showed that cIAP2 depletion, but not cIAP1 depletion, sensitized cancer cells to Smac mimetic-induced apoptosis. Ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11) is a deubiquitylase that directly stabilizes cIAP2. USP11 overexpression is frequently found in colorectal cancer and melanoma and is correlated with poor survival. In our study, cancer cell lines expressing high levels of USP11 exhibited strong resistance to Smac mimetic-induced cIAP2 degradation. Furthermore, USP11 downregulation sensitized these cells to apoptosis induced by TRAIL and BV6 and suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. Finally, the TNFα/JNK pathway induced USP11 expression and maintained cIAP2 stability, suggesting an alternative TNFα-dependent cell survival pathway. Collectively, our data suggest that USP11-stabilized cIAP2 may serve as a barrier against IAP-targeted clinical approaches.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 23 January 2015; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.234.
    Cell Death and Differentiation 01/2015; DOI:10.1038/cdd.2014.234 · 8.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in human cancers, they represent promising targets for therapeutic intervention. Small-molecule inhibitors of IAP proteins mimicking the endogenous IAP antagonist Smac, called Smac mimetics, neutralize IAP proteins and thereby promote the induction of cell death. Smac mimetics have been shown in preclinical models of human cancer to directly trigger cancer cell death or to sensitize for cancer cell death induced by a variety of cytotoxic stimuli. Smac mimetics are currently undergoing clinical evaluation in phase I/II trials, demonstrating that therapeutic targeting of IAP proteins has reached the clinical stage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 12/2014; 39. DOI:10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.12.005 · 5.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fas (CD95/APO-1) and TRAIL (CD253, TNFSF10, APO2) are members of a subset of the TNF receptor superfamily known as 'death receptors'. To date, the overwhelming majority of studies on Fas and TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) have explored the role of these receptors as initiators of apoptosis. However, sporadic reports also suggest that engagement of the Fas and TRAIL receptors can lead to other outcomes such as cytokine and chemokine production, cell proliferation, cell migration and differentiation. Indeed, although transformed cells frequently express Fas and TRAIL, most do not undergo apoptosis upon engagement of these receptors and significant effort has been devoted towards exploring how to sensitize such cells to the pro-apoptotic effects of 'death receptor' stimulation. Moreover, the expression of Fas and TRAIL receptors is greatly elevated in many cancer types such as hepatocellular carcinoma, renal carcinoma and ovarian cancer, suggesting that such tumors benefit from the expression of these receptors. Furthermore, several studies have shown that tumor proliferation, progression and invasion can be impaired through blocking or downregulation of Fas expression, but the mechanistic basis for these effects is largely unknown. Thus, the characterization of Fas and TRAIL as 'death receptors' is a gross oversimplification, especially in the context of cancer. It is becoming increasingly clear that 'death receptor' engagement can lead to outcomes, other than apoptosis, that become subverted by certain tumors to their benefit. Here we will discuss death-independent outcomes of Fas and TRAIL signaling and their implications for cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 02/2015; 39. DOI:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.01.012 · 5.97 Impact Factor