Smoking status interacts with the association between mannose-binding lectin serum levels and gene polymorphism and the carriage of oropharyngeal bacteria
ABSTRACT Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) role in the carriage of oropharyngeal bacteria is not known. We investigated the association of smoking, MBL2 polymorphisms, and MBL concentrations with oropharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacteria in young men. Oropharyngeal specimens, MBL concentrations, and MBL2 gene polymorphisms were measured in 124 asthmatic and 394 nonasthmatic Finnish military recruits. The carriage rates of S. pneumoniae (p = 0.002), N. meningitidis (p = 0.005), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (p < 0.001) throughout the military service were significantly higher among smokers than in nonsmokers. An MBL level below the median proved to be a significant risk factor for the carriage of N. meningitidis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.6) and beta-hemolytic streptococci (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) in the nonsmokers and a borderline significant risk factor for the carriage of S. pneumoniae (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.6), whereas low MBL levels producing MBL2 haplotypes (LXA/LXA, LXA/O, HYA/O, LYA/O, O/O) seemed to be associated with the carriage of N. meningitidis (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.4) and S. pneumoniae (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.9-2.7). Thus, MBL deficiency may predispose nonsmokers to oropharyngeal carriage of these bacteria. We hypothesize that the major factor contributing to elevated bacterial carriage in smokers might be increased bacterial adherence to epithelial cells, which obscures the effect of MBL.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. To report the pharyngeal colonization rate of β-hemolytic streptococci and changes in the value of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNase B serology titers during pregnancy. Methods. Healthy pregnant women were recruited and blood was drawn in each trimester. The upper limit of normal (ULN) values for ASO and anti-DNase B was calculated for each trimester. Throat swabs were collected for culture and positive cultures were further assessed for the identification of serogroup of the isolated β-hemolytic streptococcus. Results. Out of a total of 126 pregnant women, 34.1% had positive throat cultures. Group C and group G strains were isolated in 18.2% of throat cultures while group F was detected in 13.5% of cases. The rate of colonization with GAS was 1.6%. There was an overall drop in ASO titer during pregnancy while anti-DNase B titers remained relatively unchanged. ULN values of 164(IU), 157(IU), and 156(IU) were calculated for ASO at the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Based on the ULN values, 28.6% of patients had recent streptococcal exposure. Conclusions. These results show that pregnant women act as a reservoir for spreading potentially immunogenic (groups C and G) and disease producing (group F) virulent strains of streptococci.Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2014; 2014:639141. DOI:10.1155/2014/639141