The Effect of Diffuse Light on Crops
ABSTRACT Light is not evenly distributed in Dutch glass greenhouses, but this can be improved with diffuse light. Modern greenhouse coverings are able to transform most of the light entering the greenhouse into diffuse light. Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture has studied the effect of diffuse light on crops for several years. Modelling and experimental studies showed that crops such as fruit vegetables with a high plant canopy as well as ornamentals with a small plant canopy can utilize diffuse light better than direct light. Diffuse light penetrates the middle layers of a high-grown crop and results in a better horizontal light distribution in the greenhouse. Diffuse light is absorbed to a better degree by the middle leaf layers of cucumber, resulting in a higher photosynthesis. The actual photosynthesis of four pot plant species was found to be increased and crop temperatures were lower during high irradiation. The yield of cucumbers was increased, and the growth rate of several potted plants was increased. These investigations have resulted in a quantitative foundation for the potentials of diffuse light in Dutch horticultural greenhouses and the selection and verification of technological methods to convert direct sunlight into diffuse light.
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- "annuum) under a light diffusion film were higher by 10.9 % and 12 %, respectively , than fruit setting and yield of green pepper under a polyethylene film. Hemming et al. (2008) reported that the yield of cucumber (C. sativus L.) increased in a greenhouse covered with a diffusion film. "
ABSTRACT: Power generation by roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) modules may provide additional income to farmers if the crop production is comparable to that under normal greenhouse conditions. However, fluctuating irradiance caused by the partial shade of PV modules has been reported to reduce crop production. In the present study, we have shown for the first time the possibility of improving lettuce growth by using light diffusion films under roof-mounted PV modules. The effects of different light conditions (direct but fluctuating, and diffused but uniform irradiations) under PV modules on the morphology, yield, and photosynthesis of hydroponically grown lettuce were investigated. Lettuce growth was inhibited, resulting in lower dry weight and relative growth rate (RGR) with longer leaves, under the fluctuating light by roof-mounted PV modules compared to that under normal greenhouse conditions. On the other hand, under diffused light conditions, the ratio of leaf width to length increased and the values were comparable to those in the control in spring, summer, and fall cultivations. Although the net photosynthetic rate of fully expanded leaves of lettuce grown under diffused light was lowest, their dry weight and RGR were comparable to the control in summer and fall cultivations. Diffused light might penetrate into the lower layers of the leaf canopy, thereby increasing CO2 fixation of the whole canopy. Our results suggest that the application of light diffusion films is a viable option for improving crop productivity under roof-mounted PV modules.Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 09/2014; 70(3):139-149. DOI:10.2480/agrmet.D-14-00005
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- "Another emerging trend in horticulture is greenhouse cover materials that influence the directional quality of light, by scattering it, without reducing its intensity (Hemming et al., 2008). Diffuse light penetrates deeper into the canopy (i.e. more uniform vertical distribution of light) as compared to direct light, enhancing production in various ornamental crops (Hemming et al., 2008; Markvart et al., 2010), including roses (Victoria et al., 2012). 188.8.131.52. "
ABSTRACT: In determining vase life (VL), it is often not considered that the measured VL in a particular experiment may greatly depend on both the preharvest and evaluation environmental conditions. This makes the comparison between studies difficult and may lead to erroneous interpretation of results. In this review, we critically discuss the effect of the growth environment on the VL of cut roses. This effect is mainly related to changes in stomatal responsiveness, regulating water loss, whereas cut flower carbohydrate status appears less critical. When comparing cultivars, postharvest water loss and VL often show no correlation, indicating that components such as variation in the tissue resistance to cavitate and/or collapse at low water potential play an important role in the incidence of water stress symptoms. The effect of the growth environment on these components remains unknown. Botrytis cinerea sporulation and infection, as well as cut rose susceptibility to the pathogen are also affected by the growth environment, with the latter being largely unexplored. A huge variability in the choices made with respect to the experimental setup (harvest/conditioning methods, test room conditions and VL terminating symptoms) is reported. We highlight that these decisions, though frequently overlooked, influence the outcome of the study. Specifications for each of these factors are proposed as necessary to achieve a common VL protocol. Documentation of both preharvest conditions and a number of postharvest factors, including the test room conditions, is recommended not only for assisting comparisons between studies, but also to identify factors with major effects on VL.Postharvest Biology and Technology 04/2013; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.12.001 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intracanopy lighting is a recently developed supplementary lighting technique for high-wire grown vegetable production in greenhouses where a part of the lamps is mounted within instead of above the canopy. A potentially higher yield using intracanopy lighting compared with top-lighting, is based on three assumptions: (1) increased light-absorption by the crop; (2) a higher photosynthetic light use efficiency due to a more homogeneous vertical light distribution; (3) a preserved photosynthetic capacity of leaves deeper in the canopy. We used an explanatory crop model to quantify the relative importance of these assumptions for a cucumber crop during an experiment in winter in the Netherlands (Trouwborst et al., 2010). Photosynthesis and yield data of this intracanopy lighting experiment with light-emitting diodes (34% of supplemental PAR) in combination with top-lighting (66% of supplemental PAR) were used to parameterise our model. In that study intracanopy lighting did not result in an increased yield compared with 100% top-lighting due to extreme leaf curling and a lower dry matter partitioning to the fruits. Our model predicted an 8% increase in fruit yield for the intracanopy lighting treatment if there were to be no leaf curling and no lower dry matter partitioning. This increase can be largely explained by the change in light distribution and light absorption. The model further revealed unexpectedly large consequences of the lower dry matter partitioning to the fruits whereas the negative effect of leaf curling was small. The direct effect of a greater Amax at deeper canopy layers was slightly positive. The last however might have indirectly caused the greater partitioning to the leaves as the greater Amax was associated with a preserved leaf mass per area. Solutions for this problem are discussed. Our explanatory model allowed us to disentangle the interacting effects of intracanopy lighting on fruit yield. Overall, intracanopy lighting has been shown here to potentially increase the assimilation light use efficiency.Scientia Horticulturae 06/2011; 129(2):273-278. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2011.03.042 · 1.37 Impact Factor