Prostate calculi in cancer and BPH in a cohort of Korean men: Presence of calculi did not correlate with cancer risk.
ABSTRACT Prostatic calculi are common and are associated with inflammation of the prostate. Recently, it has been suggested that this inflammation may be associated with prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between prostatic calculi and prostate cancer (PCa) in prostate biopsy specimens. We retrospectively analyzed 417 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and prostate biopsies between January 2005 and January 2008. Based on the biopsy findings, patients were divided into benign prostatic hyperplasia and PCa groups. TRUS was used to detect prostatic calculi and to measure prostate volume. The correlations between PCa risk and age, serum total PSA levels, prostate volume, and prostatic calculi were analyzed. Patient age and PSA, as well as the frequency of prostatic calculi in the biopsy specimens, differed significantly between both the groups (P < 0.05). In the PCa group, the Gleason scores (GSs) were higher in patients with prostatic calculi than in patients without prostatic calculi (P = 0.023). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that patient age, serum total PSA and prostate volume were risk factors for PCa (P = 0.001), but that the presence of prostatic calculi was not associated with an increased risk of PCa (P = 0.13). In conclusion, although the presence of prostatic calculi was not shown to be a risk factor for PCa, prostatic calculi were more common in patients with PCa and were associated with a higher GS among these men.
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ABSTRACT: Information on suspected risk factors for prostate cancer was obtained from in-person interviews as part of a case-control study of tissue sex hormone receptors and serum hormone levels. The risk factors examined were medical history (including venereal disease), sexual history, smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures. Study subjects were 40 prostate cancer patients and 64 benign prostatic hyperplasia controls who were newly diagnosed during 1984-1985 at North Carolina Memorial Hospital in Chapel Hill. Subjects were white and black men aged 50 years and older. Comparisons of cases' and controls' past medical histories did not support a venereal disease hypothesis of prostate cancer etiology. The most prominent finding is an association with farming employment: 75% of cases compared to 38% of controls reported farmwork occupations. Exposures to pesticides and herbicides, while more common among the patients, did not account for the association detected for farming. No relationship was observed with cadmium exposure, the most frequently cited occupational risk factor for prostate cancer.The Prostate 02/1987; 10(1):79-88. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sexual activity has been hypothesized to play a role in the development of prostate cancer, but epidemiological data are virtually limited to case-control studies, which may be prone to bias because recall among individuals with prostate cancer could be distorted as a consequence of prostate malignancy or ongoing therapy. To examine the association between ejaculation frequency, which includes sexual intercourse, nocturnal emission, and masturbation and risk of prostate cancer. Prospective study using follow-up data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (February 1, 1992, through January 31, 2000) of 29 342 US men aged 46 to 81 years, who provided information on history of ejaculation frequency on a self-administered questionnaire in 1992 and responded to follow-up questionnaires every 2 years to 2000. Ejaculation frequency was assessed by asking participants to report the average number of ejaculations they had per month during the ages of 20 to 29 years, 40 to 49 years, and during the past year (1991). Incidence of total prostate cancer. During 222 426 person-years of follow-up, there were 1449 new cases of total prostate cancer, 953 organ-confined cases, and 147 advanced cases of prostate cancer. Most categories of ejaculation frequency were unrelated to risk of prostate cancer. However, high ejaculation frequency was related to decreased risk of total prostate cancer. The multivariate relative risks for men reporting 21 or more ejaculations per month compared with men reporting 4 to 7 ejaculations per month at ages 20 to 29 years were 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.10); ages 40 to 49 years, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53-0.86); previous year, 0.49 (95% CI, 0.27-0.88); and averaged across a lifetime, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.51-0.89). Similar associations were observed for organ-confined prostate cancer. Ejaculation frequency was not statistically significantly associated with risk of advanced prostate cancer. Our results suggest that ejaculation frequency is not related to increased risk of prostate cancer.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2004; 291(13):1578-86. · 29.98 Impact Factor
- BJU International 06/2007; 99(5):966-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor