N-acetylcysteine attenuates glycerol-induced acute kidney injury by regulating MAPKs and Bcl-2 family proteins.
ABSTRACT Rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) accounts for about 10 to 40% of all cases of AKI. It is known that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is effective in various experimental renal injury models; however, little information is available about the rat model of glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. In this study, we hypothesize that NAC plays a renoprotective role via the anti-apoptotic pathway.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) saline control group, (ii) NAC-treated group (N-acetylcysteine) (150 mg/kg), (iii) glycerol-treated group (50%, 8 ml/kg, IM) and (iv) NAC plus glycerol-treated group. Rats were sacrificed at 24 h after glycerol injection, and the blood and renal tissues were harvested.
Glycerol administration caused severe renal dysfunction, which included marked renal oxidative stress, significantly increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels. Histopathological findings, such as cast formation and tubular necrosis, confirmed renal impairment. We noted a marked activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not p-38, in the glycerol-treated group. We also observed high expression of Bax and Bad but only weak expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in the glycerol-treated group. However, NAC pretreatment significantly improved renal function and decreased the activation of ERK, JNK, Bax and Bad, whereas it increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL.
These results demonstrate that NAC protects against renal dysfunction, morphological damage and biochemical changes via the anti-apoptotic pathway in the glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis model in rats.
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ABSTRACT: Oxygen metabolites play an important role in renal injury during myoglobinuric acute renal failure (ARF). This study was designed to determine the protective influence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a hydroxyl radical scavenger, and treatment in an experimental model of myoglobinuric-ARF induced by intramuscular injection of hypertonic glycerol in rats. The rats were randomly distributed into five groups: Group 0 (n = 10), was assigned to receive 2mL saline (0,9%) intraperitoneally (ip); Group 1 (n = 10), NAC ip in a dose of 0 mg/100 g of body weight 30 min before the intramuscular (im) injection of 50% glycerol (10 mg/kg); Group 2 (n = 10), received saline 0,9% ip in a equivalent volume of NAC in Group I before the im injection of glycerol; Group 3 (n = 10), received NAC ip in a dose of 10 mg/100 g after im injection of glycerol; Group 4 (n = 10), saline 0,9% ip in a equivalent volume of NAC of the Group 3 after im administration of glycerol. After 24 h rats were sacrificed and kidney morphology and renal function were determined. A severe renal failure was produced by glycerol injection in the Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, with significant tubular proximal necrosis and cast formation, and creatinine and urea concentrations were elevated in these groups without significant differences among groups, but Group 0 where the values were significantly lower. The results of this study suggests that ip administration of NAC in rats before or after glycerol injection do not confer protection against impairment of renal function under these conditions in this model of myoglobinuric-ARF.Renal Failure 12/2002; 24(6):725-33. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myoglobinuric acute renal failure has three pathogenic mechanisms: tubular obstruction, renal vasoconstriction, and oxidative stress. The latter is generated through the iron released from the group hemo of the myoglobin. Iron induces the formation of high-activity oxygen free radicals that increase oxidative stress and provoke lipid peroxidation and cellular death. This oxidative stress can be measured in several ways, both total or partially with the total antioxidant status or the intermediate enzymes. On the other hand, N-acetylcysteine is a demonstrated substance with antioxidant properties. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of N-acetylcysteine on the oxidative stress in the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats model. We observed that the animals treated with N-acetylcysteine showed an improvement in the antioxidant activity given by an increase in the total antioxidant status and glutathione reductase levels in serum. This improvement was greater when treatment was administered before the induction of rhabdomyolysis. Nevertheless, the observed increase in antioxidant status was only statistically significant for glutathione reductase but not for total antioxidant status. Our results support an important role for N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of this form of acute renal failure, although we think that oxidative stress is not the main pathogenic mechanism of the tubular necrosis induced by rhabdomyolysis, tubular obstruction and renal vasoconstriction being still more important.Renal Failure 12/2004; 26(6):613-8. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a thiol-containing anti-oxidant, on renal function and morphology, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, in rats subjected to renal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral nephrectomy and either contralateral renal IR (40 min of renal arterial clamping), or sham manipulation. Treatment groups were: (1) IR-Saline, (2) IR-NAC, (3) Sham-Saline and (4) Sham-NAC. The N-acetylcysteine was administered in a dose of 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally at 24, 12 and 2 h before, and 24, 48 and 72 h after, renal IR. Plasma creatinine was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 after IR, and kidney histology was assessed on day 7. In separate groups of animals we measured renal levels of the anti-oxidant glutathione, markers of systemic oxidative stress (plasma ascorbyl radical, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 51Cr-EDTA clearance, on day 1 after renal IR. Treatment with NAC ameliorated the decline in GFR and reduced hyperkalaemia on day 1 (P<0.05), lowered plasma creatinine levels on days 1 and 3 (P<0.05), and decreased renal interstitial inflammation on day 7 (P<0.05), after renal IR. Kidney glutathione levels decreased significantly in group IR-Saline in response to IR (P<0.05), but were completely repleted in group IR-NAC. Groups with renal IR injury and acute renal failure showed increased plasma ascorbyl radical levels, and elevated urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha excretion, compared with sham (P<0.05). N-acetylcysteine treatment reduced plasma ascorbyl concentrations 24 h after renal IR (P<0.05), but had no effect on the rate of urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha excretion. N-acetylcysteine improves kidney function, and reduces renal interstitial inflammation, in rats subjected to renal IR. These effects were associated with increased renal glutathione levels, and decreased plasma ascorbyl concentrations, suggesting that NAC attenuates renal and systemic oxidative stress in this model.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2006; 21(5):1240-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor