Primary and secondary prevention of liver cancer by HBV

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 01/2010; 2(1):756-63. DOI: 10.2741/s98
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Primary cancer of the liver (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide; HBV is the major cause of HCC. A vaccine that protects against HBV infection was invented in 1969 and is now one of the most commonly used vaccines. National vaccination programs have dramatically reduced the prevalence of HBV infection and carriers, with a concomitant decrease in the incidence of HCC in the vaccine-impacted populations. HBV vaccine is the first widely used cancer prevention vaccine; a second that protects against papilloma virus and cancer of the cervix has recently been introduced. Appropriate treatment of HBV carriers with antivirals can reduce the titers of HBV in their blood and thereby greatly reduce the risk of HCC and chronic liver disease. Further data are required to establish criterion for treatment to enable protocols for medical and prevention programs. There are other viral caused cancers and an understanding of their pathogenesis is an important future direction for research to reduce the human burden of cancer.

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    • "Therefore , one strategy for cancer prevention is to vaccinate against viruses that cause cancer. Indeed, the vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV; Blumberg, 2010) is expected to reduce the incidence of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Intensive attempts are also being made to develop a vaccine against hepatitis C virus. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer researchers have been looking for ways to harness the immune system and to reinstate immune surveillance, to kill cancer cells without collateral damage. Here we scan current approaches to targeting the immune system against cancer, and emphasize our own approach. We are using chemical vectors attached to a specific ligand, to introduce synthetic dsRNA, polyinosine/cytosine (polyIC), into tumors. The ligand binds to a receptor protein that is overexpressed on the surface of the tumor cells. Upon ligand binding, the receptor complex is internalized, introducing the polyIC into the cell. In this fashion a large amount of synthetic dsRNA can be internalized, leading to the activation of dsRNA-binding proteins, such as dsRNA dependent protein kinase (PKR), Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-1), and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). The simultaneous activation of these signaling proteins leads to the rapid demise of the targeted cell and to cytokine secretion. The cytokines lead to a strong bystander effect and to the recruitment of immune cells that converge upon the targeted cells. The bystander effects lead to the destruction of neighboring tumor cells not targeted themselves by the vector. Normal cells, being more robust than tumor cells, survive. This strategy has several advantages: (1) recruitment of the immune system is localized to the tumor. (2) The response is rapid, leading to fast tumor eradication. (3) The bystander effects lead to the eradication of tumor cells not harboring the target. (4) The multiplicity of pro-death signaling pathways elicited by PolyIC minimizes the likelihood of the emergence of resistance. In this chapter we focus on EGFR as the targeted receptor, which is overexpressed in many tumors. In principle, the strategy can be extended to other tumors that overexpress a protein that can be internalized by a ligand, which can be a small molecule, a single chain antibody, or an affibody.
    Frontiers in Oncology 02/2012; 2:4. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00004
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    • "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world and is commonly developed from liver cirrhosis that are secondary to viral infection [1]. China is one of the highest prevalent areas of HCC as chronic hepatitis B carriers account for more than 10% of its population. "
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    ABSTRACT: With the development of high-throughput screening, a variety of genetic alterations has been found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although previous studies on HCC methylation profiles have focused on liver tissue, studies using isolated hepatocytes are rare. The heterogeneity of liver composition may impact the genuine methylation status of HCC; therefore, it is important to clarify the methylation profile of hepatocytes to aid in understanding the process of tumorigenesis. The global methylation profile of single hepatocytes isolated from liver tissue of hepatitis B virus (HBV) related HCC (HBHC) was analyzed using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 BeadChips, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) and bisulfite sequencing were used to validate the 20 significant hypermethylated genes identified. In this study, we found many noteworthy differences in the genome-wide methylation profiles of single hepatocytes of HBHC. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis showed that hepatocyte methylation profiles could be classified according to three cell types: hepatocytes of HCC, adjacent hepatocytes and normal hepatocytes. Among the 20 most hypermethylated genes in the hepatocytes of HBHC, 7 novel genes (WNK2, EMILIN2, TLX3, TM6SF1, TRIM58, HIST1H4Fand GRASP) were found to be hypermethylated in HBHC and hypomethylated in paired adjacent liver tissues; these findings have not been reported in previous studies on tissue samples. The genome-wide methylation profile of purified single hepatocytes of HBHC was aided in understanding the process of tumorigenesis, and a series of novel methylated genes found in this study have the potential to be biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of HBHC.
    PLoS ONE 05/2011; 6(5):e19862. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0019862 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel HBV integration site involved in hepatocarcinogenesis was investigated. The HBV DNA integration sites were detected by Alu-PCR in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, matched surrounding liver tissues in 30 patients with hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 3 cases of normal liver tissues. The integration sites and flanking sequences in human genome were sequenced and blasted, and the expression of integrated HBV genes was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The influence of the up-regulated expression of integrated genes on hepatocarcinogenesis was analyzed. Nineteen integration sites of HBV DNA into HCC tissues were obtained by RT-PCR and sequencing. These genes encoding proteins were: LOC51030, LOC157777, minichromosome maintenance complex component 3 associated protein (MCM3AP), MCTP1, SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 isoform 2, CCDC40, similar to HCG2033532, mitochondrial ribosomal S5 pseudogene 4. One of them was integrated into the intron of MCM3AP. RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression levels of MCM3AP mRNA in HCC tissues, matched surrounding liver tissues and normal liver tissues were in a descendent order. The ratio of MCM3AP mRNA to the GAPDH mRNA in these three tissues was 1.07375, 0.21573, 0.06747 respectively, with the difference being statistically significant among them (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the expression levels of MCM3AP mRNA from HCC tissues in which HBV DNA integrated into MCM3AP were still significantly higher than those without HBV DNA integrated into MCM3AP. It was concluded that the HBV DNA integration sites into human genome were random, and MCM3AP was a new site. The up-regulated MCM3AP mRNA may affect flanking sequences which promote the hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 08/2010; 30(4):425-9. DOI:10.1007/s11596-010-0443-3 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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