Local recurrence (LR) of a resected brain metastasis occurs in up to 46% of patients. Postoperative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) reduces that incidence. To isolate factors associated with the risk of LR after resection, the authors only studied patients who did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy.
The authors reviewed data from 570 cases involving patients who had undergone resection of a previously untreated single brain metastasis at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1993 and 2006 without receiving postoperative WBRT. All tumors were measured preoperatively on MR images. The resection method (en bloc resection [EBR] or piecemeal resection [PMR]) was noted at the time of surgery. Predictors of LR were assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model.
The median patient age was 58 years, 55% were male, and 88% had a Karnofsky Performance Scale Score > or = 80. The most common primary cancers were those of the lung (28%), skin (melanoma, 21%), kidney (19%), and breast (11%). Piecemeal resection was performed in 201 patients (35%) and EBR in 369 (65%). Local recurrence developed in 84 patients (15%). The histological type of the primary cancer did not significantly predict LR; however, 7 of 22 patients with sarcoma developed LR (p = 0.16). The authors identified 2 variables that increased the risk of LR. Undergoing PMR carried a significantly higher LR risk than EBR (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, p = 0.03). Tumors exceeding the median volume (9.7 cm(3)) had a significantly higher LR risk than those that were < 9.7 cm(3) (crude HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1-2.6; p = 0.02). In the multivariate analysis, small tumors removed by EBR had a significantly lower LR risk.
The LR risk of a single brain metastasis is influenced by biological factors (such as tumor volume) and treatments (such as the resection method). Early administration of postoperative WBRT may be particularly warranted when such negative tumor-related prognostic factors are noted or when treatment-related ones such as PMR are unavoidable.
"Previous work on the interface between cerebral metastases and the surrounding brain has been conducted using histological methods on surgically resected or post mortem specimens
[36-38] and this has certainly suggested that there are different patterns and depths of invasion, even if this has not been related to clinical outcomes. Furthermore, it has been shown that wider resection margins may improve clinical survival
 and that ADC changes across the border of another brain tumor - oligodendroglioma - may predict growth pattern and aggressiveness
. Novel therapies acting at the brain-metastasis interface are being developed
, therefore more accurate non-invasive, radiological methods may be needed to assess the degree of invasion of cerebral metastases and characterise the tumor boundary changes seen at diffusion-weighted MRI. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) has been used in neurosurgical practice mainly to distinguish cerebral metastases from abscess and glioma. There is evidence from other solid organ cancers and metastases that DWI may be used as a biomarker of prognosis and treatment response. We therefore investigated DWI characteristics of cerebral metastases and their peritumoral region recorded pre-operatively and related these to patient outcomes.
Retrospective analysis of 76 cases operated upon at a single institution with DWI performed pre-operatively at 1.5T. Maps of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were generated using standard protocols. Readings were taken from the tumor, peritumoral region and across the brain-tumor interface. Patient outcomes were overall survival and time to local recurrence.
A minimum ADC greater than 919.4 × 10-6 mm2/s within a metastasis predicted longer overall survival regardless of adjuvant therapies. This was not simply due to differences between the types of primary cancer because the effect was observed even in a subgroup of 36 patients with the same primary, non-small cell lung cancer. The change in diffusion across the tumor border and into peritumoral brain was measured by the “ADC transition coefficient” or ATC and this was more strongly predictive than ADC readings alone. Metastases with a sharp change in diffusion across their border (ATC >0.279) showed shorter overall survival compared to those with a more diffuse edge. The ATC was the only imaging measurement which independently predicted overall survival in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.3 – 0.97, p = 0.04).
DWI demonstrates changes in the tumor, across the tumor edge and in the peritumoral region which may not be visible on conventional MRI and this may be useful in predicting patient outcomes for operated cerebral metastases.
BMC Medical Imaging 08/2014; 14(1):26. DOI:10.1186/1471-2342-14-26 · 1.31 Impact Factor
"Of all malignant tumours, MM has the highest propensity to metastasize to the brain . Approximately 10–13% of patients presenting with regional disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III) are at risk for brain metastases   and 18–46% of stage IV patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) involvement   with a prevalence of 55–75% at autopsy    . The prognosis after diagnosis of BM of MM is poor with a median survival of only a few months    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Brain metastases (BM) commonly occur in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). Prognosis is poor even with maximal therapy. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate patients with BM of MM who were treated neurosurgically with respect to clinical presentation, recurrent disease, survival and factors affecting survival.
Patients and methods:
Thirty-four patients (19f/15m) with BM of MM were treated in our hospital between 2000 and 2010. Patient data were analysed, survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier-estimates and factors affecting prognosis were evaluated using uni- and multivariate analysis.
Twenty-two patients (64.7%) had a single BM, whereas twelve patients (35.3%) revealed two or more lesions. Median survival for patients with a single BM was 13.0 months (95%-CI 9.3-16.7 months), this was significantly (p=0.014) better than for patients with two or more BM (median 5.0, 95%-CI 3.4-14.6 months). Nineteen patients (55.9%) developed an intracranial relapse after microsurgical resection of a first lesion. Patients with an isolated intracerebral relapse survived significantly (p=0.003) longer than those with systemic progression (median 6.0, 95%-CI 0.0-15.3 months vs median 3.0, 95%-CI 1.7-4.3 months). Similarly, patients with a high performance status showed significantly (p=0.001) prolonged survival (median 7.0, 95%-CI 0.0-19.9 months vs median 1.0, 95%-CI 0.0-2.2 months). Eleven out of nineteen patients (57.9%) underwent either another microsurgical resection (n=6) or stereotactic radiosurgery (n=5). These patients remained on a high performance status even after aggressive therapy.
Even though the prognosis for patients with BM of MM is generally poor, patients with a single BM can benefit from microsurgical resection. However, there is a high risk of intracranial relapse. In selected patients with a good performance status and recurrent intracranial disease, recurrent local therapy can be justified and useful.
"Furthermore, evidence suggests that an en bloc resection may be beneficial compared with piecemeal resection for supra- and infra-tentorial situated cerebral metastases. In addition to the type of resection, preoperative tumour volume significantly influences the incidence of local recurrence [10–12]. However, although complete en bloc resection should be aspired to, is not possible in all patients when metastases are localised in eloquent-brain areas and are adherent or infiltrate adjacent brain tissue. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral metastases are the most frequent cerebral tumours. Surgery of cerebral metastases plays an indispensible role in a multimodal therapy concept. Conventional white-light, microscopy assisted microsurgical and circumferential stripping of cerebral metastases is neurosurgical standard therapy, but is associated with an extraordinarily high recurrence rate of more than 50% without subsequent whole-brain radiotherapy. Therefore, neurosurgical standard therapy fails to achieve local tumour control in many patients. The present conceptual paper focuses on this issue and discusses the possible causes of the high recurrence rates such as intraoperative dissemination of tumour cells or the lack of sharp delimitation of metastases from the surrounding brain tissue resulting in incomplete resections. Adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy reduces the risk of local and distant recurrences, but is associated with a well-documented impairment of neurocognitive function. New surgical strategies, such as supramarginal or fluorescence-guided resection, address the possibility of infiltrating tumour parts to achieve more complete resection of cerebral metastases. Supramarginal resection was shown to significantly reduce the risk of a local recurrence and prolongs two-year survival rates. Furthermore, radiosurgery in combination with surgery represents a promising approach.
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