Factors influencing the risk of local recurrence after resection of a single brain metastasis.
ABSTRACT Local recurrence (LR) of a resected brain metastasis occurs in up to 46% of patients. Postoperative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) reduces that incidence. To isolate factors associated with the risk of LR after resection, the authors only studied patients who did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy.
The authors reviewed data from 570 cases involving patients who had undergone resection of a previously untreated single brain metastasis at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1993 and 2006 without receiving postoperative WBRT. All tumors were measured preoperatively on MR images. The resection method (en bloc resection [EBR] or piecemeal resection [PMR]) was noted at the time of surgery. Predictors of LR were assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model.
The median patient age was 58 years, 55% were male, and 88% had a Karnofsky Performance Scale Score > or = 80. The most common primary cancers were those of the lung (28%), skin (melanoma, 21%), kidney (19%), and breast (11%). Piecemeal resection was performed in 201 patients (35%) and EBR in 369 (65%). Local recurrence developed in 84 patients (15%). The histological type of the primary cancer did not significantly predict LR; however, 7 of 22 patients with sarcoma developed LR (p = 0.16). The authors identified 2 variables that increased the risk of LR. Undergoing PMR carried a significantly higher LR risk than EBR (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, p = 0.03). Tumors exceeding the median volume (9.7 cm(3)) had a significantly higher LR risk than those that were < 9.7 cm(3) (crude HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1-2.6; p = 0.02). In the multivariate analysis, small tumors removed by EBR had a significantly lower LR risk.
The LR risk of a single brain metastasis is influenced by biological factors (such as tumor volume) and treatments (such as the resection method). Early administration of postoperative WBRT may be particularly warranted when such negative tumor-related prognostic factors are noted or when treatment-related ones such as PMR are unavoidable.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases (BM) commonly occur in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). Prognosis is poor even with maximal therapy. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate patients with BM of MM who were treated neurosurgically with respect to clinical presentation, recurrent disease, survival and factors affecting survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients (19f/15m) with BM of MM were treated in our hospital between 2000 and 2010. Patient data were analysed, survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier-estimates and factors affecting prognosis were evaluated using uni- and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (64.7%) had a single BM, whereas twelve patients (35.3%) revealed two or more lesions. Median survival for patients with a single BM was 13.0 months (95%-CI 9.3-16.7 months), this was significantly (p=0.014) better than for patients with two or more BM (median 5.0, 95%-CI 3.4-14.6 months). Nineteen patients (55.9%) developed an intracranial relapse after microsurgical resection of a first lesion. Patients with an isolated intracerebral relapse survived significantly (p=0.003) longer than those with systemic progression (median 6.0, 95%-CI 0.0-15.3 months vs median 3.0, 95%-CI 1.7-4.3 months). Similarly, patients with a high performance status showed significantly (p=0.001) prolonged survival (median 7.0, 95%-CI 0.0-19.9 months vs median 1.0, 95%-CI 0.0-2.2 months). Eleven out of nineteen patients (57.9%) underwent either another microsurgical resection (n=6) or stereotactic radiosurgery (n=5). These patients remained on a high performance status even after aggressive therapy. DISCUSSION: Even though the prognosis for patients with BM of MM is generally poor, patients with a single BM can benefit from microsurgical resection. However, there is a high risk of intracranial relapse. In selected patients with a good performance status and recurrent intracranial disease, recurrent local therapy can be justified and useful.Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 04/2013; · 1.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The addition of whole-brain radiotherapy is a standard of care for patients with single, resectable intracranial metastasis. Stereotactic irradiation of the postoperative resection cavity seems to offer excellent local control rates and avoid the neurocognitive risks of whole-brain radiation therapy. The risk of remote intracranial recurrence imposes a strict surveillance imaging in order to proceed to a possible irradiation before a symptomatic stage. It must be validated in future randomized trials.Cancer/Radiothérapie 09/2013; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurosurgical resection and whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) are accepted treatments for single and oligometastatic cancer to the brain. To avoid the decline in neurocognitive function (NCF) linked to WBRT, the authors conducted a prospective, multicenter, phase 2 study to determine whether surgery and carmustine wafers (CW), while deferring WBRT, could preserve NCF and achieve local control (LC). NCF and LC were measured in 59 patients who underwent resection and received CW for a single (83%) or dominant (oligometastatic, 2 to 3 lesions) metastasis and received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for tiny nodules not treated with resection plus CW. Preservation of NCF was defined as an improvement or a decline ≤1 standard deviation from baseline in 3 domains: memory, executive function, and fine motor skills, evaluated at 2-month intervals. Significant improvements in executive function and memory occurred throughout the 1-year follow-up. Preservation or improvement of NCF occurred in all 3 domains for the majority of patients at each of the 2-month intervals. NCF declined in only 1 patient. The chemowafers were well tolerated, and serious adverse events were reversible. There was local recurrence in 28% of the patients at 1-year follow-up. Patients with brain metastases had improvements in their cognitive trajectory, especially memory and executive function, after treatment with resection plus CW. The rate of LC (78%) was comparable to historic rates of surgery with WBRT and superior to reports of WBRT alone. For patients who undergo resection for symptomatic or large-volume metastasis or for tissue diagnosis, the addition of CW can be considered as an option. Cancer 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.Cancer 08/2013; · 5.20 Impact Factor