Factors influencing the risk of local recurrence after resection of a single brain metastasis.
ABSTRACT Local recurrence (LR) of a resected brain metastasis occurs in up to 46% of patients. Postoperative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) reduces that incidence. To isolate factors associated with the risk of LR after resection, the authors only studied patients who did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy.
The authors reviewed data from 570 cases involving patients who had undergone resection of a previously untreated single brain metastasis at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1993 and 2006 without receiving postoperative WBRT. All tumors were measured preoperatively on MR images. The resection method (en bloc resection [EBR] or piecemeal resection [PMR]) was noted at the time of surgery. Predictors of LR were assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model.
The median patient age was 58 years, 55% were male, and 88% had a Karnofsky Performance Scale Score > or = 80. The most common primary cancers were those of the lung (28%), skin (melanoma, 21%), kidney (19%), and breast (11%). Piecemeal resection was performed in 201 patients (35%) and EBR in 369 (65%). Local recurrence developed in 84 patients (15%). The histological type of the primary cancer did not significantly predict LR; however, 7 of 22 patients with sarcoma developed LR (p = 0.16). The authors identified 2 variables that increased the risk of LR. Undergoing PMR carried a significantly higher LR risk than EBR (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, p = 0.03). Tumors exceeding the median volume (9.7 cm(3)) had a significantly higher LR risk than those that were < 9.7 cm(3) (crude HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1-2.6; p = 0.02). In the multivariate analysis, small tumors removed by EBR had a significantly lower LR risk.
The LR risk of a single brain metastasis is influenced by biological factors (such as tumor volume) and treatments (such as the resection method). Early administration of postoperative WBRT may be particularly warranted when such negative tumor-related prognostic factors are noted or when treatment-related ones such as PMR are unavoidable.
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ABSTRACT: The authors report on 84 patients with single melanoma brain metastasis surgically treated from 1997 to 2007. There were 46 males and 38 females; mean age was 41 years (range 24-58 years). All patients were surgically treated, and 52 of them received postoperative adjuvant therapy consisting of whole-brain radiation therapy (36), radiosurgery (9), or a combination of these two techniques (7). Brain recurrences were observed in 44 cases, of which 9 were local. Of the latter, seven were re-operated while the remaining two were treated by radiosurgery. At 1-year follow-up, the survival rate was 52% (32 patients) whereas only 12 patients (14%) were still alive after 2 years. None of the patients in which removal was subtotal survived for more than 6 months after surgical treatment. Three years after the onset of the brain metastasis, five patients (6%) were still alive. Survival was significantly influenced by treatment with regard to overall survival reported in other series. A review of literature, together with our own series, suggests that radical surgical treatment of the lesion possibly employing the internal no-touch technique has significantly increased survival in our patients (p < 0.05) and that the association of postoperative radiotherapy and re-operation in the event of recurrent metastatic lesions is advisable even though statistical significance was not reached (p > 0.05).Neurosurgical Review 09/2011; 35(2):211-7; discussion 217-8. · 1.97 Impact Factor
Article: Management of brain metastases.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: As systemic cancer therapies have improved, the natural history and importance of treating brain metastases continues to evolve. Historically, most patients with brain metastases have been managed with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with surgical resection or radiosurgery added for patients with single or few metastases. Because the potential late toxicity of WBRT is increasingly recognized when systemic tumor is more effectively controlled, there has been increased interest in the use of focal therapies such as radiosurgery with deferred WBRT even for patients with larger numbers of metastases. Although WBRT in combination with radiosurgery or surgical resection significantly reduces central nervous system recurrences at the treated site and elsewhere in the brain, it is not clear whether a patient's quality of life is more affected by tumor recurrence or by treatment with WBRT. In our practice, most patients with fewer than 7 to 10 tumors are treated with radiosurgery alone, with WBRT initially deferred because of concerns about its late toxicity. The ongoing technical improvements in radiosurgery have made this transition away from WBRT clinically feasible. This approach also allows patients to begin systemic therapy sooner, rather than waiting 2 to 4 weeks to complete WBRT. For patients with large or very symptomatic tumors, surgical resection is performed, followed by postoperative radiosurgery to the resection cavity, again initially deferring WBRT for many patients. This focal-only approach in the postoperative setting is associated with a higher rate of subdural dissemination and needs further prospective study, as some would argue that tumor progression is the major determinant of loss of function. Ultimately, better survival will require better systemic therapy that both controls extracranial disease and penetrates the brain to reduce intracranial recurrences. Unfortunately, many clinical trials of novel agents exclude patients with brain metastases.Current Treatment Options in Neurology 07/2010; 12(4):334-46. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To establish an empirical systematic approach for the management of brain metastases from a variety of cancers. The English literature was reviewed from 2000 to 2011 and all clinical trials (phase II, phase III and retrospective studies) regarding therapy of brain metastases were selected for more detailed review. Some key articles published prior to 2000 were also included in the review as are supplemental recommendations based on our clinical experience. Patients with brain metastases from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) at the initial cancer diagnosis can be treated with concomitant whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and chemotherapy or first with chemotherapy followed by WBRT. In all other cases, brain metastases are currently treated independently of the management of the extracranial disease with surgery or radiosurgery followed by WBRT. In radioresistant tumors (melanoma, sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma), WBRT may be omitted initially but administered at recurrence. Where surgery or radiosurgery is not an option for patients, WBRT should be administered. Prophylactic WBRT should be given in patients with SCLC and considered in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Apart from its use in SCLC, chemotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases is reserved for patients enrolled in clinical trials. Brain metastases should be treated aggressively and independently of the primary site tumor especially if the performance status of the patient is good. The role of chemotherapy should be addressed in the context of clinical trials.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2012; 69(1):1-13. · 2.80 Impact Factor