ABCG2 is a half-size ATP-binding cassette transporter implicated in cellular gefitinib transport. Reportedly, the c.421C > A ABCG2 gene polymorphism was associated with gefitinib-induced diarrhea in Caucasian patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Since c.421C > A ABCG2, resulting in p.Q141K substitution, is more prevalent in Asian populations, the putative relationship between gefitinib-induced adverse effects and this functional polymorphism was investigated in Japanese patients. c.376C > T, resulting in truncated, non-functional ABCG2, was also investigated.
ABCG2 gene polymorphisms were evaluated in 75 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with gefitinib 250 mg/day orally, and results were correlated with treatment-related adverse effects.
Forty (53.3%) patients harbored c.421A ABCG2 on at least one allele, while the remaining 35 (46.7%) were wild type for c.421C > A. No significant group difference was observed in frequency of gefitinib-related diarrhea or other adverse effects. In addition, the only one patient homozygous for the c.421A allele in this study was not affected with gefitinib-induced diarrhea or interstitial lung disease. Two patients (2.7%) were found to harbor the c.376T allele heterozygously. One of the two patients harbored both the c.376T and the c.421A genotypes on distinct alleles. Gefitinib-related interstitial lung disease and severe diarrhea were noted in neither of the two patients.
In this Japanese population, we did not find an evident association between ABCG2 polymorphisms, c.376C > T and c.421C > A, and susceptibility to gefitinib-induced adverse effects.
"These studies suggest that patients with reduced ABCG2/BCRP activity arising from a genetic variation might be at increased risk of gefitinib-induced diarrhea, and these genetic markers should be considered in the optimization of NSCLC treatments with gefitinib. However, no clear association was reported between the 421C.A SNP of ABCG2/BCRP and a susceptibility to gefitinib-induced adverse effects in a Japanese population.134 The skin toxicity of gefitinib is also reported to be unrelated to this SNP.103 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, such as ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), transport various structurally unrelated compounds out of cells. ABCG2/BCRP is referred to as a "half-type" ABC transporter, functioning as a homodimer, and transports anticancer agents such as irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), gefitinib, imatinib, methotrexate, and mitoxantrone from cells. The expression of ABCG2/BCRP can confer a multidrug-resistant phenotype on cancer cells and affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in normal tissues, thus modulating the in vivo efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Clarification of the substrate preferences and structural relationships of ABCG2/BCRP is essential for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects in vivo during chemotherapy. Its single-nucleotide polymorphisms are also involved in determining the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, and those that reduce the functional activity of ABCG2/BCRP might be associated with unexpected adverse effects from normal doses of anticancer drugs that are ABCG2/BCRP substrates. Importantly, many recently developed molecular-targeted cancer drugs, such as the tyrosine kinase inhisbitors, imatinib mesylate, gefitinib, and others, can also interact with ABCG2/BCRP. Both functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms and inhibitory agents of ABCG2/BCRP modulate the in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these molecular cancer treatments, so the pharmacogenetics of ABCG2/BCRP is an important consideration in the application of molecular-targeted chemotherapies.
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 02/2014; 7(1):53-64. DOI:10.2147/PGPM.S38295
"This protein modulates the absorption, metabolism and toxicity of numerous drugs and xenobiotics, and causes multidrug resistance in cancer , , , , , , , . Polymorphic variants or nonsense mutations of ABCG2 were found to be associated with interindividual variability in drug response to anticancer chemotherapy and the outcome of psoriasis or multiple sclerosis treatments , , , , , , , , , , . Recently, a significant disease-association for a polymorphic ABCG2 variant (resulting in ABCG2-Q141K) has been observed in gout , , , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a rapid, simple and reliable, antibody-based flow cytometry assay for the quantitative determination of membrane proteins in human erythrocytes. Our method reveals significant differences between the expression levels of the wild-type ABCG2 protein and the heterozygous Q141K polymorphic variant. Moreover, we find that nonsense mutations on one allele result in a 50% reduction in the erythrocyte expression of this protein. Since ABCG2 polymorphisms are known to modify essential pharmacokinetic parameters, uric acid metabolism and cancer drug resistance, a direct determination of the erythrocyte membrane ABCG2 protein expression may provide valuable information for assessing these conditions or for devising drug treatments. Our findings suggest that erythrocyte membrane protein levels may reflect genotype-dependent tissue expression patterns. Extension of this methodology to other disease-related or pharmacologically important membrane proteins may yield new protein biomarkers for personalized diagnostics.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e48423. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0048423 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple new small molecules such as tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and proteasome inhibitors have been approved in the last decade and are a considerable progress for cancer therapy. Drug transporters are important determinants of drug concentrations in the systemic circulation. Moreover, expression of drug transporters in blood-tissue barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier) can limit access of small molecules to the tumour (e.g. brain tumour). Finally, transporter expression and (up)regulation in the tumour itself is known to affect local drug concentrations in the tumour tissue contributing to multidrug resistance observed for multiple anticancer agents. This review summarizes the current knowledge on: (i) small molecules as substrates of uptake and efflux transporters; (ii) the impact of transporter deficiency in knockout mouse models on plasma and tissue concentrations; (iii) small molecules as inhibitors of uptake and efflux transporters with possible consequences for drug-drug interactions and the reversal of multidrug resistance; and (iv) on clinical studies investigating the association of polymorphisms in genes encoding drug transporters with pharmacokinetics, outcome and toxicity during treatment with the small molecules.
British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2011; 165(2):345-62. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01618.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
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