Article

Mortality associated with discordant responses to antiretroviral therapy in resource-constrained settings.

Departamento de Epidemiologia e Bioestatística, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.39). 01/2010; 53(1):70-7. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181c22d19
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We assessed mortality associated with immunologic and virologic patterns of response at 6 months of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected individuals from resource-limited countries in Africa and South America.
Patients who initiated HAART between 1996 and 2007, aged 16 years or older, and had at least 1 measurement (HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load or CD4 cell count) at 6 months of therapy (3-9 month window) were included. Therapy response was categorized as complete, discordant (virologic only or immunologic only), and absent. Associations between 6-month response to therapy and all-cause mortality were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Robust standard errors were calculated to account for intrasite correlation.
A total of 7160 patients, corresponding to 15,107 person-years, were analyzed. In multivariable analysis adjusted for age at HAART initiation, baseline clinical stage and CD4 cell count, year of HAART initiation, clinic, occurrence of an AIDS-defining condition within the first 6 months of treatment, and discordant and absent responses were associated with increased risk of death.
Similar to reports from high-income countries, discordant immunologic and virologic responses were associated with intermediate risk of death compared with complete and no response in this large cohort of HIV-1 patients from resource-limited countries. Our results support a recommendation for wider availability of plasma viral load testing to monitor antiretroviral therapy in these settings.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Eduardo Sprinz, Aug 17, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
111 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively decreases tuberculosis (TB) incidence long-term, but is associated with high TB incidence rates in the first 6 months. We sought to determine the incidence and the long-term effects of TB during ART on HIV treatment outcome, and the risk factors for incident TB during ART in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. Routinely collected longitudinal clinical data from all patients initiated on first-line ART was retrospectively analysed. 5,982 patients were included with a median baseline CD4+ T cell count (CD4 count) of 117 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range [IQR]; 42, 182). In the first 2 years, there were 336 (5.6%) incident TB events in 10,710 person-years (py) of follow-up (3.14 cases/100 pyar [95% CI 2.82-3.49]); incidence rates at 0-3, 3-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months were 11.25 (9.58-13.21), 6.27 (4.99-7.87), 2.47 (1.87-3.36) and 1.02 (0.80-1.31), respectively. Incident TB during ART was independently associated with baseline CD4 count of <50 cells/mm(3) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.84 [1.25-2.70], P = 0.002) and male gender (HR 1.68 [1.34-2.11], P<0.001). After two years on ART, the patients who had developed TB in the first 12 months had a significantly lower median CD4 count increase (184 cells/mm(3) [IQR; 107, 258, n = 118] vs 209 cells/mm(3) [124, 309, n = 2166], P = 0.01), a larger proportion of suboptimal immune reconstitution according to two definitions (increase in CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3): 57.4% vs 46.9%, P = 0.03, and absolute CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3): 30.4 vs 19.9%, P = 0.006), and a higher percentage of immunological failure according to the WHO criteria (13.6% vs 6.5%, P = 0.003). Incident TB during ART was independently associated with poor CD4 count recovery and fulfilling WHO immunological failure definitions. Incident TB during ART occurs most often within 3 months and in patients with CD4 counts less than 50 cells/mm(3). Incident TB during ART is associated with long-term impairment in immune recovery.
    PLoS ONE 05/2010; 5(5):e10527. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010527 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The identification and management of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure is a key challenge for HIV programs in resource-limited settings. In 2008, the National AIDS Control Organisation, India piloted a national strategy to provide second-line ART. We assessed the National AIDS Control Organisation second-line ART evaluation algorithm. Adult patients who had received 6 months or more of standard first-line ART were referred for second-line ART evaluation if they demonstrated CD4 decline to pre-ART values, CD4 drop to less than 50% of peak on-treatment value, failure to achieve CD4 greater than 100 c/mm(3), or development of a new World Health Organization Stage 3 or 4 AIDS-defining illness. Patients received HIV RNA testing, and those with HIV RNA 10,000 c/mL or greater qualified to switch to second-line ART. World Health Organization-defined clinical and CD4 criteria for ART failure were compared against virologic failure criteria. Between January and June 2008, 154 patients met criteria for evaluation. Of 122 (79%) patients who had HIV RNA testing, 87 (71%) had viral load 10,000 c/mL or greater and were recommended to start second-line ART, 29 (24%) had viral load less than 400 c/mL, and six (5%) had viral load between 400 and 10,000 c/mL. The positive predictive value of World Health Organization clinical/immunologic criteria to detect virologic failure was 71% (95% confidence interval, 63% to 79%). Second-line ART was initiated in the public sector in India using an approach combining clinical and immunologic evaluation with confirmation of virologic failure. Almost 25% of patients who met clinical/immunologic failure criteria demonstrated virologic suppression. Inclusion of targeted HIV RNA testing in the evaluation of treatment failure can prevent unnecessary switches to second-line ART.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 10/2010; 55(5):610-4. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181f43a31 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the long-term impact of immunologic discordance (viral load <50 copies/mL and CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm3) in antiretroviral-naive patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: Our analysis included antiretroviral-naive individuals from a population-based Canadian Observational Cohort that initiated cART after January 1, 2000, and achieved virologic suppression. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between 1-year and 2-year immunologic discordance and time to death from all-causes. Correlates of immunologic discordance were assessed with logistic regression. Results: Immunologic discordance was observed in 19.9% (404 of 2028) and 10.2% (176 of 1721) of individuals at 1 and 2 years after cART initiation, respectively. Two-year immunologic discordance was associated with an increased risk of death [adjusted hazard ratio = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26 to 5.78]. One-year immunologic discordance was not associated with death (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.30). Two-year immunologic discordance was associated with older age (aOR per decade = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.48), male gender (aOR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.09 to 3.16), injection drug use (aOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.81 to 4.17), and lower baseline CD4+ count (aOR per 100 cells = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.31) and viral load (aOR per log10 copies/mL = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.65). Conclusions: Immunologic discordance after 2 years of cART in antiretroviral-naive individuals was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2010; 55(4):451-459. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181ec28ff · 4.39 Impact Factor
Show more