Neural correlates of incidental and directed facial emotion processing in adolescents and adults.
ABSTRACT Our knowledge on the development of the affective and cognitive circuitries that underlie affect regulation is still limited. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined whether there is more efficient prefrontal modulation of affective circuits with development. Ten adolescents (mean age 14 +/- 2 years) and 10 adults (mean age 30 +/- 6 years) underwent two scanning conditions that required different levels of cognitive control over face emotion processing. A 'directed' emotion processing condition required judgment of facial expressions. An 'incidental' emotion processing condition required an age judgment. For the incidental emotion processing condition, adolescents, compared with adults, showed less activation in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and greater activation in paralimbic regions, suggesting greater emotional reactivity and immature prefrontal circuitries for affect regulation. For the directed emotion processing condition, adolescents, compared with adults, showed decreased recruitment of both the dorsal and pregenual right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), suggesting immature modulatory functions of the ACC during directed face emotion processing. These results indicate that the neural circuitries for affect regulation are still developing in adolescence and have not yet reached the adult level.
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ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate differences between children who did and did not experience peer rejection in psychological state through surveys and in emotion processing during an interpersonal stress challenge task to reflect naturalistic interpersonal face-to-face relationships. A total of 20 right-handed children, 10 to 12 yr of age, completed self-rating questionnaires inquiring about peer rejection in school, depression, and anxiety. They then underwent an interpersonal stress challenge task simulating conditions of emotional stress, in reaction to positive, negative and neutral facial expression stimuli, using interpersonal feedbacks, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) for an analysis of neural correlates during the task. Ten were the peer-rejection group, whereas the remainder were the control group. Based on the behavioral results, the peer-rejection group exhibited elevated levels of depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety and social anxiety as compared to the control group. The FMRI results revealed that the peer-rejection group exhibited greater and remarkably more extensive activation of brain regions encompassing the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to negative feedback stimuli of emotional faces. The different brain reactivities characterizing emotion processing during interpersonal relationships may be present between children who do and do not experience peer rejection. Graphical AbstractJournal of Korean Medical Science 09/2014; 29(9):1293-300. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.9.1293 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our ability to read other people's non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6-11) and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS), the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian (MVB) analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age. Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:941. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00941 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Identifying early markers of brain function among those at high risk (HR) for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) could serve as a screening measure when children and ado-lescents present with subsyndromal clinical symptoms prior to the conversion to bipolar disorder. Studies on the offspring of patients with bipolar disorder who are genetically at HR have each been limited in establishing a biomarker, while an analytic review in summarizing the findings offers an improvised opportunity toward that goal. Methods: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of mixed cognitive and emotional activities using the GingerALE software from the BrainMap Project was com-pleted. The meta-analysis of all fMRI studies contained a total of 29 reports and included PBD, HR, and typically developing (TD) groups. Results:The HR group showed significantly greater activation relative to theTD group in the right DLPFC–insular–parietal–cerebellar regions. Similarly, the HR group exhibited greater activity in the right DLPFC and insula as well as the left cerebellum compared to patients with PBD. Patients with PBD, relative to TD, showed greater activation in regions of the right amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, medial PFC, left ventral striatum, and cerebellum and lower activation in the right VLPFC and the DLPFC. Conclusion: The HR population showed increased activity, presumably indicating greater compensatory deployment, in relation to both the TD and the PBD, in the key cognition and emotion-processing regions, such as the DLPFC, insula, and parietal cortex. In con-trast, patients with PBD, relative to HR and TD, showed decreased activity, which could indicate a decreased effort in multiple PFC regions in addition to widespread subcortical abnormalities, which are suggestive of a more entrenched disease process.Frontiers in Psychiatry 03/2014; 5. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00141