Our knowledge on the development of the affective and cognitive circuitries that underlie affect regulation is still limited. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined whether there is more efficient prefrontal modulation of affective circuits with development. Ten adolescents (mean age 14 +/- 2 years) and 10 adults (mean age 30 +/- 6 years) underwent two scanning conditions that required different levels of cognitive control over face emotion processing. A 'directed' emotion processing condition required judgment of facial expressions. An 'incidental' emotion processing condition required an age judgment. For the incidental emotion processing condition, adolescents, compared with adults, showed less activation in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and greater activation in paralimbic regions, suggesting greater emotional reactivity and immature prefrontal circuitries for affect regulation. For the directed emotion processing condition, adolescents, compared with adults, showed decreased recruitment of both the dorsal and pregenual right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), suggesting immature modulatory functions of the ACC during directed face emotion processing. These results indicate that the neural circuitries for affect regulation are still developing in adolescence and have not yet reached the adult level.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
"ul et al . , 2007 ) . However , adult sample did not show biased processing of negative stimuli at this early stage . These results were consistent with a recent functional MRI study showing greater paralimbic activation and enhanced emotional reactivity to emotionally salient faces in adolescents compared to adults during a non - emotional task ( Passarotti et al . , 2009 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli.
Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded for highly negative (HN), moderately negative (MN), and neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli.
Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN vs. neutral pictures in N1 (100-150 ms), P2 (130-190 ms), N2 (210-290 ms), and P3 (360-440 ms) components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2, and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290 ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults.
Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence.
"Children experiencing peer rejection express more generalized negative emotion than their peers (9). Recently, the amygdala has been found to be associated with emotional face processing and the amygdala activity during adolescence has been suggested to be more reactive to emotional face than either childhood or adulthood (10, 11). Other brain regions involved in facial emotion recognition such as face-selective regions (the lateral fusiform gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus), the superior temporal sulcus, anterior temporal pole, and the limbic system (the orbitofrontal cortex and retrosplenial or posterior cingulated regions) have been reported as members of the distributed face network (12). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate differences between children who did and did not experience peer rejection in psychological state through surveys and in emotion processing during an interpersonal stress challenge task to reflect naturalistic interpersonal face-to-face relationships. A total of 20 right-handed children, 10 to 12 yr of age, completed self-rating questionnaires inquiring about peer rejection in school, depression, and anxiety. They then underwent an interpersonal stress challenge task simulating conditions of emotional stress, in reaction to positive, negative and neutral facial expression stimuli, using interpersonal feedbacks, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) for an analysis of neural correlates during the task. Ten were the peer-rejection group, whereas the remainder were the control group. Based on the behavioral results, the peer-rejection group exhibited elevated levels of depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety and social anxiety as compared to the control group. The FMRI results revealed that the peer-rejection group exhibited greater and remarkably more extensive activation of brain regions encompassing the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to negative feedback stimuli of emotional faces. The different brain reactivities characterizing emotion processing during interpersonal relationships may be present between children who do and do not experience peer rejection.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 09/2014; 29(9):1293-300. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.9.1293 · 1.27 Impact Factor
"Numerous neuroimaging studies have investigated face processing in adults; however, knowledge regarding the developmental course of such abilities remains scant. Differences in frontal activation between adolescents and adults have been reported in fMRI in emotional regulation tasks (Burnett et al., 2009; Passarotti et al., 2009), as well as in tasks of emotional self-regulation and empathy (Lamm and Lewis, 2010). The timing of brain processing in the development of emotional face perception throughout childhood and adolescence has been determined with event-related potentials (ERPs), with the early emotion-specific responses emerging only in adolescence (Batty and Taylor, 2006; Miki et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frontal lobes are involved in many higher-order cognitive functions such as social cognition executive functions and language and speech. These functions are complex and follow a prolonged developmental course from childhood through to early adulthood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is ideal for the study of development of these functions, due to its combination of temporal and spatial resolution which allows the determination of age-related changes in both neural timing and location. There are several challenges for MEG developmental studies: to design tasks appropriate to capture the neurodevelopmental trajectory of these cognitive functions, and to develop appropriate analysis strategies to capture various aspects of neuromagnetic frontal lobe activity. Here, we review our MEG research on social and executive functions, and speech in typically developing children and in two clinical groups - children with autism spectrum disorder and children born very preterm. The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production, and resting-state networks. We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development. We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 06/2014; 8:453. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00453 · 2.99 Impact Factor